The Roots of the War During the marriage between Peleus and Thetis, sea goddess, Eris, the goddess of discord, and an uninvited guest, storms into the wedding banquet and threw a golden apple on the table. Eris says, “The apple belongs to whomever is the fairest.”
Athena Aphrodite Hera Eris and the Apple of Discord Each grabs for the apple. To solve the problem, Zeus allows Paris, Prince of Troy and the most beautiful man alive, to judge who is the fairest.
The Contest To win his vote, Paris is promised many things… Aphrodite promises him the most beautiful woman in the world as his bride… …Hera promises him the kingship of Europe and Asia… …and Athena promises him victory over the Greeks in war.
Paris Chooses the Bride… Aphrodite tells him of a beautiful woman, wife of the mighty King of Sparta, who shall be his. Her name is Helen. King Menelaus leaves for Crete, trusting Paris in his home with his treasures and his wife. While Menelaus is away, Paris kidnaps Helen and carries her away to the high- walled city of Troy.
Who has to FIGHT!!! Menelaus convinces his brother, Agamemnon (King of Mycenae) to lead an expedition to retrieve Helen. Greek heroes, Achilles, Odysseus, Nestor and Ajax, and a fleet of more than 1,000 ships join the battle
Before ODYSSEUS Agrees to Fight Odysseus had a beautiful wife and a young son. He had no desire to go fight someone else’s war. He pretended to be insane by planting salt. However, Odysseus’ sanity is revealed when he could not kill his child.
…and the Trojan War Begins. A thousand ships set sail for the four- walled city of Troy, led by Menelaus. The war lasted ten years.
He was the commander of armies. He stole Achilles’ prize maiden, Bryseis, for which the god Apollo caused the Greek camp to be stricken with a plague. Brother of Menelaus, son of Atreus Murdered in cold blood by his wife’s suitor, Aegisthus, when he got home from the Trojan War. We’ll meet him in the Odyssey, too. Agamemnon, Lord of Men Agamemnon
(or Akhilleus) River Styx The Tale of Mighty Achilles
Achilles, continued Achilles refuses to help fight in the Trojan War because Agamemnon had stolen his prize lady. He stayed in his tent a long time, and refused to fight even when Agamemnon brought her back. Patroclus: Achilles’ best friend. He wears his armor in the battle, in which he falls to the mighty Hector. Achilles swears vengeance, and his mother has Hephaestus make him some new armor.
Achilles, continued Achilles dons his new armor, confronts Hector, and kills him. After stripping the armor off, he ties Hector’s body to the back of his chariot and drags it around the walls of Troy. This did not please the gods.
Achilles, concluded Apollo then caused an arrow, shot by Paris himself, to fly at the only vulnerable spot on Achilles’ body, the heel, and kill him. Odysseus was given the mighty armor in remembrance of the mighty Achilles.
Master of the House The most formidable of all of the Argive captains was Odysseus, Son of Laertes and King of Ithaca. Wise beyond comparison, Odysseus was a master of disguise, of craftiness, of cunning, and of guile—no one could outwit this man skilled in all ways of contending.
The Master’s Plan The Story of the Trojan Horse Troy fell overnight.
Introduction to Homer’s The Odyssey An Overview of Detail from Books I-IV
Book I: Odysseus is stranded. Poseidon has decided to impede Odysseus’ journey home (we’ll find out why later). Odysseus is languishing on Calypso’s island: Ogygia. Calypso has fallen in love with him and refuses to let him leave.
Meanwhile back at home in Ithaca, Penelope is dealing with a mob of suitors, who insist that she must marry one of them. Trouble at Home.
Athena Inspires the Prince Meanwhile back in Ithaca, his son, Telemachus, believes that Odysseus is dead. Athena travels to Ithaca to speak to him. Disguised as the warrior Mentes, she advises Telemachus to tell the suitors to leave and to take a journey to find his father. She predicts that Odysseus will soon be home.
Book II: Telemachus Sets Sail Prince Telemachus takes his father’s seat in the courtyard and addresses the suitors and all the nobles of Ithaca. In despair, he cries out to Athena, who is actually standing right by him. She assures him that he has ALL of the qualities that his father does. They set sail for Pylos in search of news of Odysseus.
Book III: King Nestor Remembers Telemachus and Athena arrive in Pylos as the king and others are sacrificing to Poseidon. He tells them of Athena’s anger toward the Greeks for not giving thanks after the war. He encourages them to sail on to Sparta to speak with King Menelaus for more information.
Book IV: The King and Queen of Sparta Telemachus arrives by chariot to Menelaus’ palace. No one but Helen recognizes him as Odysseus’ son because he looks so much like his father. In the morning, Menelaus tells his homecoming story and the vague rumors that he has heard of Odysseus… …and the suitors begin planning Telemachus’ death…