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Why did Rome become a conqueror? Framework Why did Rome become a conqueror? Framework Why? Theories –Continual Self-Defense –Greed/Aggressiveness –Nature.

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Presentation on theme: "Why did Rome become a conqueror? Framework Why did Rome become a conqueror? Framework Why? Theories –Continual Self-Defense –Greed/Aggressiveness –Nature."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Why did Rome become a conqueror? Framework

3 Why did Rome become a conqueror? Framework Why? Theories –Continual Self-Defense –Greed/Aggressiveness –Nature of Political Prestige/Power Political Advancement Dignitas

4 Why did Rome become a conqueror? Framework Why? Theories How? Theories: –Genius? –Material Circumstances –Roman Determination

5 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28)

6 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

7 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

8 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

9 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

10 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

11 Who are the Carthaginians? Powerful Trading Empire Similarities to Rome Differences from Rome FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

12 Who are the Carthaginians? Powerful Trading Empire Similarities to Rome Differences from Rome Background to Conflict Rome respects Carth domain over Medit Rome Expands Greek Pressure Where might battle take place? FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

13 Who are the Carthaginians? Powerful Trading Empire Similarities to Rome Differences from Rome Background to Conflict Rome respects Carth domain over Medit Rome Expands Greek Pressure Where might battle take place? Sicily FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

14 First Punic War Land Power vs. Sea Power Rome and Naval Warfare

15 First Punic War Land Power vs. Sea Power Rome and Naval Warfare Course of War Roman Victories Shipwrecks Roman Determination Hamilcar Barca Carthaginian Politics

16 First Punic War Land Power vs. Sea Power Rome and Naval Warfare Course of War Roman Victories Shipwrecks Roman Determination Hamilcar Barca Carthaginian Politics Effects Cash to Rome Carth gives up Sicilian Claims Sicily=First Overseas Province

17 Second Punic War Interwar Developments Roman Progress Carthaginian Progress

18 Second Punic War Interwar Developments Roman Progress Carthaginian Progress Hannibal’s Success Hannibal’s Idea

19 Second Punic War Interwar Developments Roman Progress Carthaginian Progress Hannibal’s Success Hannibal’s Idea Cross Alps

20 Second Punic War Interwar Developments Roman Progress Carthaginian Progress Hannibal’s Success Hannibal’s Idea Cross Alps Military Genius Cannae

21 Heavy Libyan Infantry Numidian Cavalry Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Gallic & allied infantry Italian & Roman Cavalry Heavy Libyan Infantry Carthaginian Skirmishers Roman Skirmishers Roman Heavy Infantry Aufidus R. The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

22 Aufidus R. Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Italian & Roman Cavalry Carthaginian Skirmishers Roman Skirmishers Heavy Libyan Infantry Numidian Cavalry Gallic & allied infantryHeavy Libyan Infantry Roman Heavy Infantry While the Carthaginian skirmishers clash with the Roman skirmishers, they also screen the Carthaginian Gallic & allied infantry which are pushing their center forward into a convex formation. This stretches the Carthaginian line and offers a tempting target for the main body of Roman infantry to attack, thus setting up a trap. The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

23 Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Italian & Roman Cavalry Carthaginian Skirmishers Roman Skirmishers Heavy Libyan Infantry Numidian Cavalry Gallic & allied infantry Heavy Libyan Infantry Roman Heavy Infantry While the Carthaginian skirmishers clash with the Roman skirmishers, they also screen the Carthaginian Gallic & allied infantry which are pushing their center forward into a convex formation. This stretches the Carthaginian line and offers a tempting target for the main body of Roman infantry to attack, thus setting up a trap. Aufidus R. The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

24 Aufidus R. Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Italian & Roman Cavalry Carthaginian Skirmishers Roman Skirmishers Heavy Libyan Infantry Numidian Cavalry Gallic & allied infantry Heavy Libyan Infantry Roman Heavy Infantry Aufidus R. The skirmishers filter back through their respective armies, allowing the Roman legions to attack the thin Carthaginian center. The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

25 Aufidus R. Heavy Libyan Infantry Numidian Cavalry Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Gallic & allied infantry Italian & Roman Cavalry Heavy Libyan Infantry Carthaginian Skirmishers Roman Skirmishers As the Roman legionaries press forward, they push back the Carthaginian line…. The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

26 Aufidus R. Heavy Libyan Infantry Numidian Cavalry Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Gallic & allied infantry Italian & Roman Cavalry Heavy Libyan Infantry Carthaginian Skirmishers Roman Skirmishers …. first flattening it out…. The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

27 Aufidus R. Heavy Libyan Infantry Numidian Cavalry Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Gallic & allied infantry Italian & Roman Cavalry Heavy Libyan Infantry Carthaginian Skirmishers Italian & Roman Cavalry … and then forcing it back into a concave shape. Meanwhile the Carthaginian cavalry on the left has beaten the opposing Roman cavalry. While some of them continue to pursue the fleeing Roman cavalry, the rest swing around to hit the exposed rear of the Roman line, first driving the Roman skirmishers back into the ranks of the legions. Roman Skirmishers The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

28 Aufidus R. Heavy Libyan Infantry Numidian Cavalry Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Gallic & allied infantry Heavy Libyan Infantry Carthaginian Skirmishers Roman Skirmishers Italian & Roman Cavalry At the same time, the Libyan infantry on the flanks of the main body of Carthaginian infantry swing around to attack the exposed flanks of the Roman infantry. The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

29 Aufidus R. Heavy Libyan Infantry Spanish & Gallic Cavalry Gallic & allied infantry Italian & Roman Cavalry Heavy Libyan Infantry Carthaginian Skirmishers With that, the trap is sprung,with the Roman legions surrounded and hemmed in so tight they cannot even raise their arms to defend themselves. From this point on, it was just a massacre. Numidian Cavalry The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE

30 The ensuing slaughter was probably the worst military defeat in Roman history as Roman soldiers were packed in so tightly they had no room to raise their arms to defend themselves.

31 Second Punic War Interwar Developments Roman Progress Carthaginian Progress Hannibal’s Success Hannibal’s Idea Cross Alps Military Genius Cannae Slow Defeat of Hannibal Siege and Fabian Strategy Italians mostly stay loyal Hannibal Roams Return to North Africa Scipio (202) and Surrender (201)

32 Second Punic War Interwar Developments Roman Progress Carthaginian Progress Hannibal’s Success Hannibal’s Idea Cross Alps Military Genius Cannae Slow Defeat of Hannibal Siege and Fabian Strategy Italians mostly stay loyal Hannibal Roams Return to North Africa Scipio (202) and Surrender (201) Effects Devastation of Carthage Rome Medit Power Militia to Prof Army Scipio, Dignitas, Political Power

33 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

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35 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

36 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

37 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

38 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

39 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

40 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

41 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

42 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

43 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION

44 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Empire  Serious problems (FC.30)

45 A FC.29 ROMAN DOMINANCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ( B.C.E.) Strong Roman state ruling Italy (FC.28) Roman territory borders new neighbors New mutual fears &/or chances for conquests Rome starts or is drawn into new wars Rome eventually wins those wars Ambitious genl’s (e.g., Caesar in Gaul & Pompey in Asia) conquer rest of the Mediterranean (FC.31) PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Two desperate wars vs. Carthage ( & B.C.E.) because: Rome must protect trade of Greeks in S. Italy Interest in Sicily which is rich & very close to Italy Rome a major naval power controlling Sicily & W. Mediterranean Rome attacks Carthage & Spanish Celts because: Carthage had conquered Spain & used it vs. Rome Rome still feared Celts & Carthage after 2 wars Brutal & treacherous conquest of Carthage & Spain by 133 B.C.E. Rome drawn into wars vs. Macedon & Seleucid Asia because: Rome attacks Pirates in Adriatic  Mac. attacks Rome Constant bickering b/w Grks who run to Rome for help Rome annexes Macedon, Greece, & Pergamum in Asia Minor by 133 B.C.E PATTERN OF ROMAN EXPANSION Empire  Serious problems (FC.30)

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