Presentation on theme: "Daniel Farcas President of the Private Universities Corporation, CUP Chancellor of UNIACC University TRAINING HUMAN CAPITAL FOR THE 21 ST CENTURY."— Presentation transcript:
Daniel Farcas President of the Private Universities Corporation, CUP Chancellor of UNIACC University TRAINING HUMAN CAPITAL FOR THE 21 ST CENTURY
INDEX APPROACH TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN CHILE REFERENCE TO THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT ABOUT THE E- LEARNING SYSTEM: THE UNITED STATES THE E-LEARNING SYSTEM AS DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL IN CHILE UNIVERSIDAD UNIACC: AN E-LEARNING EMBLEMATIC CASE ADVANTAGES OF THE E-LEARNING SYSTEM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION LIMITATIONS WITHIN THE NATIONAL CONTEXT CONCLUSIONS
DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN CHILE AND THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION Private and social return Social and economic development in Chile Upholding a competitive position globally Improving the life quality of citizens Social mobility FORMATION OF ADVANCED HUMAN CAPITAL STRATEGIC CHALLENGE 4
Augmentation of diversity in student characteristics. The wider access and coverage of higher education has had effects on the different social groups of the country: 7 out of 10 students are the first generation in their families to attend a university. Gender Parity Incorporation of various age groups: the net generation and adult learners
They were born in a digital context, and therefore can interact naturally with all means of communication. They are eager to interact, explore and discover things, apply what they have learnt, and relate to all types of resources, especially audiovisual ones. They did not graduate from high school recently. They are professionals who are already in the job market that demands they update their knowledge and previously learnt skills, regardless of the limited time they have to study. The Net Generation Adult Learners
EXPECTATIONS Widen and diversify academic offer. Provide more and better education (access, coverage and quality) For more people Adjust to the demands of the job market Contribute to augment professional and technical level in different fields. Extend formation periods and training throughout life
Employability refers to the competencies and transferable skills which reinforce people’s capacity to take advantage of the educational opportunities that they are presented with. This with the objective of finding and maintaining a decent job, be promoted in the company they work in, change jobs or adapt to technological evolution, and conditions in the job market (OIT, 2005)
The capacity to search, generate, process and transmit information have become essential functions which determine productivity and competiveness; not only of individuals but of societies as well. These factors affect every person and the country as a whole. Having higher education studies is greatly valued by Chilean society Income difference between graduates and non graduates from higher education (2009) Source: OECD and The World Bank (2009). Reviews for national policies for education. Tertiary education in Chile. ASSESSMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION Income difference between a graduate from a technical training centre vs a graduate from 12 years of education Income difference between a graduate from a professional institute vs a graduate from 12 years of education Income difference between a graduate from a university centre vs a graduate from 12 years of education
The role of Higher Education institutions is related to advanced knowledge, and transmission of such knowledge, and at the same time to the contribution of development and equity; and thus contributing to decrease poverty rates and increase sustainable growth of the country.
DISTANCE EDUCATION CONCEPT It is a formal education process with an institutional basis. It is expressed by separating instructors from students It uses interactive telecommunication systems It connects students, instructors, and learning resources by means of sharing information, through different formats that are part of the educational experience. Source : Simonson, Smaldino, Albright & Zvacek (2006). Teaching and learning at a distance. Foundations of distance education. Distance education has got objectives which crosscut any teaching-learning process, related to development and mastery of knowledge and skills. It is mainly characterized by the fact that the teacher and the learner do not share the same space, but this physical distance is made up for the link mechanism between the involved parties and the defined contents, if the proper teaching and technological patterns are applied. The implementation of this kind of educational system is inevitably influenced by political, economic and cultural phenomena, so that it is necessary to consider global and local conditions.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE US 73% of American students belong to the “non-traditional” category, i.e. they are financially independent, full time workers, single parents, etc. This evidences an extended universe of potential e-learning students Source : W. Blair (2009). Growth Stock Conference, Apollo Group
In the US, in 2007, there were approximately 4 million students enrolled in higher education taking at least one online course. This means that more than 20% of the total student population was participating in this teaching-learning model. Source: E. Allen and J. Seaman (2009). Staying the course. Online education in the United States, E-LEARNING IN THE US Undergraduate Postgraduate Other
Among the regional, national and specialized accrediting agencies, we found that at least 20 of them accredit distance learning programs beside traditional programs. Additionally, there is the Distance Education and Training Council DETC. This agency is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education, USDE, and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation, CHEA, which operates exclusively in the accreditation of distance learning programs. ACCREDITING E-LEARNING IN THE US
Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE) American Dietetic Association, Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Commission on Institutions of Higher Education (NEASC-CIHE) Distance Education and Training Council, Accrediting Commission (DETC) North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, The Higher Learning Commission (NCA-HLC) Midwifery Education Accreditation Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU) CouncilAmerican College of Nurse-Midwives, Division of Accreditation Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges (SACS) Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (WASC- ACCJC) American Occupational Therapy Association, Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities (WASC- ACSCU) American Physical Therapy Association, Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools, Accreditation Commission National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education Accrediting Council for Continuing Education and Training Commission on Accrediting of the Association of Theological Schools American Dental Association, Commission on Dental Accreditation Source: eLearners.com (2010). Accrediting Agencies Recognized by U.S. Department of Education and/or CHEA Accreditation Agencies Recognized by the USDE and/or the CHEA
“The No Significant Difference Phenomenon: A Comparative Research Annotated Bibliography on Technology for Distance Education” (Russell, 2002): A bibliographic revision of 255 studies, concludes that there are no significant differences between the results of students studying in a ground based program versus an online one. “Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta- Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies” (U.S. Department of Education, 2009): A meta-analysis of more than a thousand empirical studies published between , shows that students who studied in an e-Learning program, have better academic results than those who attend regular ground based classes. This difference is even higher when contrasting students attending regular ground classes versus a blended modality. VALIDITY OF E-LEARNING PROGRAMS ACCORDING TO STUDIES IN THE US
Students registered in e-learning programs dedicate more time to their studies and consequently, have better results. The different content delivery formats as well as the profile of registered students in this teaching learning modality do not influence the effectiveness of the program. E-learning is effective in undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The same happens in academic or professional programs.
MAINLY E-SUPPORT, INCIPIENT E-LEARNING From the year 2000 we can observe more clearly the incorporation of ICTs in Chilean higher education Digital tools as a way to support teaching, complementary mechanism of on campus education (e- support), limited percentage of contents are provided on-line The limited percentage of online provided contents has evolved slowly to blended learning and e-learning OVERVIEW OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF E-LEARNING IN CHILE
FORMAL EDUCATION, INSTITUTION-BASED Distance education in Chile has been implemented in the different higher education institutions Mainly present in universities, and still incipient in professional institutes and technical formation centers The State has assumed a role in the field of training needs and development of advanced human resources, which has been taken by SENCE the National Service for Training and Employment, an institution under the Labor Ministry This has turned companies into the sector with the most significant demand for training in the e-learning modality
LIFELONG LEARNING, NON DEGREE ORIENTED Mainly development of short term courses focused on adult training and specialization, which do not lead to the achievement of a degree Programs targeted to lifelong learning Gradually, undergraduate and graduate programs have been incorporated
Source: P. Riquelme and C. Martínez. (2008). Estado de la educación superior online. Areas for this modality of teaching-learning are: Firstly economics and administrative sciences Secondly computer sciences Third education And to a lesser extent other fields of study
NO LEGAL FRAME Quality Assurance Higher Education Act, No (2006) does not establishes legal or evaluation standards for this educational modality In this sense, Chilean law does not provide protocols of institutional accreditation for programs concerning blended or e-learning courses. Even though there is a National Accreditation Committee, and other agencies, they review just on campus programs. It can be concluded that in some cases it could even be a negative influence in accreditation processes
Centro de Educación a Distancia, TELEDUC, of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (from 1977 provides distance education; from educative television to e-learning) Corporación Red Universitaria Nacional, REUNA (integrates the information technologies in the academic context in Chile through collaboration between its members. Creates the UVirtual in 1999) Universidad Virtual of the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (one of the first initiatives associated to the concept of virtual education, started in 1998) INITIATIVES THAT CAN BE DISTINGUISHED IN THE CHILEAN PATH OF E-LEARNING
Quinto Campus, of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (installed in 1998, composed by videoconference classroom and multimedia in four campuses, from which different undergraduate courses are provided) Red Enlaces, of the Ministry of Education (generated during the nineties, oriented to improve the education through the incorporation of technologies as a didactic resource; meanwhile a digital culture is developed among the citizens) INACAP (first technical training centre that provided distance courses through video and teleconferences, starting to form distance learning courses designer Instituto de Informática Educativa, IIE, of the Universidad de la Frontera (initiated the graduate program of Educative Informatic in 1996)
UNIACC is a Private Corporation recognized by the Chilean Laws with full academic, administrative, and financial autonomy. UNIACC´s origins date back to IACC, a Technical Institute of Higher Education, founded in It became an officially autonomous University in UNIACC is accredited by the National Commission of Accreditation. UNIACC is a leader in undergraduate programs associated to Arts, Technology and Communication. UNIACC is also renowned for adult education; for those who want to return to college to pursuit knowledge that enables their personal and professional realization. To do so, UNIACC offers cutting edge technologies and qualified teachers.
2002: 100% Online Programs for teachers, Second Region 2003: ONLINE PREUNIVERSITARY / Courses ICDL Introduction of Specifications / UOC Agreement 2004: First degree provided 100% online PET Business Administration/ Diploma of Specifications and Standards e-Learning CODELCO Project CONSOLIDATION 2005 – 2007 MASSIFICATION 2002 – 2004 LAUNCHING 1999 – 2001 RESEARCH 1996 – : TEC Monterrey 1997: Tripartite Conference 1998: Online Magister with UAB OUR HISTORY 1999: E-campus – WebCT 2000: Support to Traditional Programs 2001: Autoinstructive Courses 2005: PET Psychology / PET Bachelor’s degree / 2006: PET Social Communication 2007: PET Computer Science Engineering 29
UNDERGRADUATE Social Communication Psychology (blended) Business Administration Computer Science Engineering Administration for Social Organizations Public Administration (E-Government ) POSTGRADUATE International Master in Communication & Marketing, MINT Master in Communication & Educational Technology for E-Learning Master in Psyco-Coaching Master in Informatic Law Doctorate Program in Communication E-LERNING ACADEMIC PROGRAMS
Team Work Lecture EXAMEN Tests GUIAS Workshops Field trips Questions Audiovisual support Demos Contents - Presentations Interactive demos Onlineevaluations Programed weekly activities Laboratory interactiveSimulations Academic Records Library Digital Librery ConeXXIones From ground based modality to online modality Navegación por Internet 31
Extends the possibilities of access to formation and training with the objective of obtaining advanced human capital for Chile, a country whose geographical and connection characteristics might be limiting. Extends formation and training possibilities to other social segments -eliminating barriers such as: gender, age, geography and population distribution, physical impairment, etc.–. This makes higher education more inclusive favoring social mobility. It allows people who cannot study because of time or distance limitations, or personal or job related problems, to study concomitant to their circumstances. This means, training is not limited to a phase in life only, it can be turned into lifelong learning. ADVANTAGES OF THE E-LEARNING SYSTEM FOR CHILE Access Coverage Compatibility
It generates networks that strengthen the social capital of the population by connecting different parts of the country into a space of collective knowledge construction. Students are completely focused in their studies and in their formation process. This favors the vision of lifelong learning creating professionals who are able to upgrade themselves permanently. Corresponds to development of information and communication technologies, which permit exploring new multimedia formats to stimulate the teaching learning process. Integration Empowerment Innovation
Social and institutional validation The social image of distance education was originally perceived as the “poor relative of the formal education system”. The demand for advanced human capital and the need for innovation and development, have made distance education a way to secure development in terms of implementing ICTs in the educational field. There are no protocols in Chile for institutional accreditation of undergraduate and postgraduate programs -both blended or e- learning-. Accreditation should not be an obstacle, but an incentive for institutions, and people who will have confidence in modalities that include a more intensive use of technologies. LIMITATIONS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF E-LEARNING WITHIN THE NATIONAL CONTEXT
Connectivity There are technological limitations to consider, as well, inasmuch connectivity levels determine the real possibilities that the population has to acess this type of education. Factors such as band width, for example, will allow for a higher or lower exploitation of resources that the e-learning system has to favor the teaching learning process – using multimedia resources, synchronous and interactive activities, etc. This requires a technological support that will permit the system to function in optimum conditions. Transformation of the Pedagogical Paradigm From the on campus methodologies to the online ones, where the relation between professor-student and student-student changes, and multimedia is incorporated (not just the digitalization of contents)
Higher Education stopped being the right of a social elite, and turned into a citizens right. It has left its role of educating a few individuals in a country and moved into the role of educating citizens of the world. Its function is not only limited exclusively to generating and transmitting knowledge, but also to the development of competencies that may be applied in a world of constant transformation in the field of knowledge, communication, technologies and strict demands in the job market. Productivity increases, and at the same time there is a contribution to social integration.
The incorporation of new technologies may benefit: The wide array of students (considering cultural, geographical, generational, and social diversity, among other features). The option of a wider access for people with time-distance limitations, physical challenges, etc. E-Learning has emerged as an effective alternative to expand access to education, and facilitate lifelong learning by means of a more inclusive system. It responds to access, coverage and flexibility needs required by the system. Additionally, it contributes to train professionals needed by the country.
It is of paramount importance to augment human capital and incorporate new technologies -in order to foster economic and social development in the country- so as to maintain a competitive position worldwide. Being innovative in the field of education brings about benefits which directly affect the improvement of the individuals’ life quality, and the skills to face the challenges of the 21 st century. E-learning is definitely suitable with the aims to an advance higher education system that will train professionals in our country, according to the times. Training, upgrading courses and continuing education programs are demands of the world market. Higher education Institutions must be able to adapt to such demands and train professionals accordingly.
Access I Equity I Plurality Quality I Relevance I Employability Transparency I Management I Regulations Research I Innovation I Science & Technology THE FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN CHILE SHOULD MOVE FORWARD TO: 41
Daniel Farcas Rector of UNIACC University President of the Private Universities Corporation, CUP