“Our findings on the impact of home foreclosures on families are disturbing. Children in particular experience problems in school and are deeply affected by instability in the home. More research is needed to better understand the long-term impact of foreclosures on our communities and to find the best interventions to meet those needs,” said Roberto Quercia, Director, Center for Community Capital, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Key findings include: Job loss and jumps in mortgage payments were the most common triggers that led to default and foreclosure. Families interviewed reported an average loss of $89,155 due to the foreclosure. The dramatic financial loss forced parents to pull back on plans to help their children pay for life expenses, such as college, a car, or a home. Despite having reached out for help to avoid their foreclosure, none of the families interviewed were offered a sustainable forbearance, workout, or loan modification from their financial institutions. Parents, spouses, and children felt a heavy emotional burden including depression, increased anxiety, tension, and feelings of guilt and resentment. More than half of the families reported that their children had academic or behavioral problems in school and had trouble getting along with siblings and making new friends. All but one family were left without reserves that they could tap into in case of a financial emergency, and many skimped on needed medical care to save money. Almost eight million homeowners in the U.S. are behind in their mortgage payments and an estimated 400,000 Latino families were expected to lose their homes to foreclosure in 2009 alone. By 2050, Latinos will make up 30 percent of the U.S. population, compared to 14% today, and immigrants and their children will account for 82 percent of household growth between now and 2050.
Average student debt upon graduation has more than doubled in the last 8 years to over $17,000. In 1970, 80% of government aid to students was provided in grants, and 20% in loans. By 1995, it was the reverse: 20% grants and 80% loans. For access to higher education, wealth is surpasses academic merit as a determining factor -- low performing students from wealthy families attend college at the same rate as high performing students from poor families. With tuition at major universities rising another 9% this year, the above situations are worsening rapidly Average student debt upon graduation has more than doubled in the last 8 years to over $17,000. In 1970, 80% of government aid to students was provided in grants, and 20% in loans. By 1995, it was the reverse: 20% grants and 80% loans. For access to higher education, wealth is surpasses academic merit as a determining factor -- low performing students from wealthy families attend college at the same rate as high performing students from poor families. With tuition at major universities rising another 9% this year, the above situations are worsening rapidly
Less than 40 percent of low-income students who start college get a degree of any kind within six years.
When Pell grants were named for the senator in 1980, a typical public four-year university cost $2,551 annually. Pell Grants provided $1,750, almost 70 percent of the total. Even private colleges cost only about $5,600 back then.
Pell Grants cover only 33 percent of the cost of attending a public university. Why? Because prices have increased nearly 500 percent since 1980. Average private college costs, meanwhile, rose to over $34,000 per year.
Efforts to make college more affordable are of special and urgent concern to African Americans. The reasons are many: The median income of black families in the United States is only 62 percent of the median income of white families. The typical black family holds only one tenth the wealth of the average white family. Blacks are three times as likely as whites to be poor. African Americans are twice as often out of work as whites. Many families use the equity in their home to finance their children’s higher education. But fewer than half of all black families own their home compared to more than three quarters of all white families. Over the years these huge disparities in income and wealth have been a major factor in the extreme differences between the races in enrollments in higher education.
Michel Foucault Discourses have both disciplinary and, to use Foucault's term, "disciplining" effects. They enable and delimit fields of knowledge and inquiry, and they govern what can be said, thought and done within those fields. International Encyclopedia of the Sociology of Education, http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/ed270/Luke/SAHA6.html
“For Nietzsche, it was not a matter of knowing what good and evil were in themselves, but of who was being designated or rather who was speaking?” “For Nietzsche, it was not a matter of knowing what good and evil were in themselves, but of who was being designated or rather who was speaking?” It is the holder of discourse and more profoundly still, in the possessor of the word, that language is gathered together in its entirety. Foucault M 1970 The Order of Things, Vintage, New York
Pierre Bourdieu “The social reality that objectivists speak about is also an object of perception. And social science must take as its object both this reality and the perception of reality, the perspectives, the points of view which, by virtue of their position in objective social space, agents have on this reality.” Bourdieu P 1992 Language and Symbolic Power, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Discourses constitute what Wittgenstein called "forms of life", ubiquitous ways of knowing, valuing and experiencing the world. They can be used for the assertion of power and knowledge and they can be used for purposes of resistance and critique. J. F. M. Hunter, "Forms of Life" in Wittgenstein's "Philosophical Investigations" American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Oct., 1968), pp. 233-243
Uses in Education Foucault and Bourdieu’s work provides a framework for describing how educational discourse constructs teachers, students, and human subjects within different relations of power and knowledge. One can utilize their work in education to describe the hegemonic power of educational discourses in the construction and intersections of gender, race, cultural identity, and social class.
Never stop asking “who is speaking?” and giving voice to those who have been silenced!