Warm up 12/18 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the Patriots before the American Revolution.
Patriot Disadvantages Britain had 9 million people compared to 2.5 million in the United States They lacked a regular army and strong navy American soldiers lacked military experience Ammunition and weapons were in short supply Not everyone supported independence, ( Many were loyalists or neutral)
Loyalists About 1 in 5 were loyalists More loyalists were in the South than the North They stayed loyal for religious reasons, fear of disorder, and not understanding what all the commotion was about. The war separated families and neighbors. Ex: William Franklin was a loyalist
American Advantages Fighting at home British had to travel 3,000 miles to fight The British had to hire Hessians, (mercenaries from Germany). American soldiers had more at stake. Great Leadership: George Washington
Recruiting an Army Washington wanted people to enlist for the whole war, but many wanted one year of service only. The Continental Congress was hesitant to push for an army, because they didn’t want to look like the British Parliament Patriots needed troops and quickly
Fighting in New York In the summer of 1776, Britain sent 32,000 troops across the sea. General William Howe hoped Americans would give up when they saw the Army They did not
Battle of Long Island Outnumbered and out maneuvered, Americans suffered a serious defeat. They were short of supplies. British sent reports of Americans not wearing shoes, socks, or jackets. Washington retreated to Manhattan, and then across New Jersey into Pennsylvania
Warm-up 12/18 Going into the Winter of 1776-1777, describe some of the problems facing the patriots?
A Low Point In the winter of 1776-1777, the size of the army dwindled. Soldiers completed their terms of service and went home Others deserted, or ran away.
Thomas Paine and “The Crisis” Thomas Paine wrote the “The Crisis”, and reminded the colonists, The harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. Washington used Paine’s words to inspire the troops.
Help Arrives Washington pleaded with the Continental Congress for more troops Southerners convinced the Congress not to allow African Americans in the war. They feared giving them guns and feared possible revolts.
African Americans in the War Some states ignored the ban and enlisted African Americans Rhode Island had an all African American regiment Every state except South Carolina eventually allowed African Americans to enlist Many felt fighting for freedom from Britain would help them as well after the war
Victories in New Jersey In previous history, many armies take the winter off and camp out The British did not expect to fight On Christmas Night, 1776, Washington crossed the Delaware and surprised the British at Trenton Americans captured 900 Hessians.
Trenton and Princeton British General Lord Charles Cornwallis, sent troops to Trenton, but Washington out maneuvered him and attacked Princeton, and drove away the British. A British soldier stated, “A few days ago, they had given up the cause for lost. Their late successes have turned the scale and now they are all liberty mad again.”
The British Plan The British plan for 1777 was to take Albany, NY and gain control of the Hudson River. This would separate New England from the middle states.
The British Plan General John Burgoyne would lead 8,000 troops south from Canada A second force under Barry St. Leger, would move east from lake Ontario General Howe, would then move north from New York City up to Albany. But first he planned to take over Philadelphia
1 st prong “fails” The British were successful in taking Philadelphia, without much of a fight. The Continental Congress fled into the Pennsylvania countryside Washington surrounded the city, attacked the British camp near Germantown, but was forced to withdraw. Howe decided to spend the winter in Philly.
Patriots stop St. Leger Patriots had a defense post at Fort Stanwix St. Leger was bombarding the fort, and the colonists were running out of supplies.
St. Leger Ctd… General Nicholas Herkimer was leading a relief effort to aid the Americans at Fort Stanwix St. Leger heard about Herkimer and surprised attacked them before they got to the fort
Battle of Oriskany St. Leger marched through the colonists Herkimer, while wounded, sat against a tree and continued to command his army Eventually Herkimer died of his wounds. Meanwhile, while St. Leger was busy at Oriskany, The troops at Fort Stanwix attacked the camp and took or destroyed all British supplies.
Benedict Arnold The colonists held out until Benedict Arnold came from Albany with troops and forced the British Back This prong of the three prong attacked had failed
Saratoga General Burgoyne’s army had trouble advancing after capturing Fort Ticonderoga in the North Burgoyne loved to wine and dine, and traveled with 30 wagons of luxury goods They moved slowly through the forests. At the same time colonists cut down trees and blocked roads
Burgoyne gets Desperate In need of supplies, Burgoyne sent troops through the woods to Vermont to capture a military town. Colonists saw the bright red coats, and picked off British soldiers one by one in the woods. Desperately short of supplies, Burgoyne retreated to Saratoga.
Trapped!! Burgoyne had expected the reinforcements from the South and West, but they never came Troops under General Horatio Gates blocked the path to the south.
Surrender The British were now trapped, and outnumbered 3-1. After his last attack failed, Burgoyne surrendered. As a band played “Yankee Doodle,” 5,700 British soldiers handed their weapons to the Americans. The British plan to cut off New England had failed.
Warm up 1/2/08 Write in a paragraph a description of how the war is going for the United States.
An old Enemy Becomes a Friend By late 1777, Ben Franklin had been in Paris, France for a year. France had secretly, been giving money to the allies American victory at Saratoga was the turning point. France now was committed to sending money, equipment, and troops. Spain and the Netherlands also aided Americans
Cold Winters Before France entered the war, Washington continued to surround Philadelphia and General Howe. While the British would have warm homes to sleep in, Washington and his army camped outside in the winter at Valley Forge, 20 miles from Philly
The cold winter Soldiers lacked shoes, shirts, and blankets Many men deserted The soldiers built huts and found shelter however necessary After the winter, the spirits of the soldiers rose when hearing news of France entering the war, and more soldiers would join the army.
Foreign Aid Foreign Generals from all over helped teach Americans proper military training. General Marquis de Lafayette, a French General, became enthused by the ideas of the declaration of independence, and joined Washington’s side.
Money problems The congress would not raise taxes, so they printed large amounts of money, which led to inflation Inflation is when it takes more and more money to buy the same amount of goods. It was a problem, but the only way to finance the war
Life at Home While men were at war, many women took jobs of men and worked the farms. Many women, like flag maker Betsy Ross, who made flags for a living, ran successful businesses. This new role in society made women start to question their role in society.
Difficulties for Loyalists Every state had loyalists Many loyalists left for Spain or the new frontier They were often victims of mob violence
Warm-up 1/3/08 Describe why help from the French would be valuable to the Americans
Fighting in the West Britain, with the aid of Native Americans, fought together Together, They would attack colonists in their towns and homes, and Native Americans would look for ways to get “payback” for years of mistreatment. American general George Rogers Clark won a major battle at Vincennes, Indiana to secure the Western area
Glory at Sea The British used a Blockade, or in other words, stopping supplies from reaching the colonists. America built 13 warships, but they were no match for the British Navy American Privateers were more effective because they were privately owned merchant ships equipped with weapons
John Paul Jones He was a privateer commander who attacked British ports He attacked the British warship Serapis in order to destroy a supply fleet. After 3 hours of battle and his ship damaged, the Serapis offered surrender Jones responded, “I have not yet begun to fight” Although his ship sunk, he won the battle and was a hero to the colonists.
War in the South By 1778, the British realized how difficult a war this had become, and changed their strategy. They concentrated almost all their fighting now in the south, with most of their force together. The British hoped to take advantage of Loyalists in the south.
British Victories In late 1778, General Henry Clinton sent 3,500 troops from New York to Savannah, Georgia. British took over the state In early 1780, Clinton himself left New York to attack Charleston South Carolina. Charleston surrendered in May, and the British took thousands of American prisoners It was the worst defeat of the war
Cornwallis in the South Clinton returned to NY, leaving General Cornwallis in command of British forces in the South. America sent General Horatio Gates to face Cornwallis. Cornwallis fought Gates at Camden, SC. Although the British won, Gates had discovered a successful tactic for victory
Guerrilla Warfare Soldiers would appear suddenly, strike, then run away. Then the next group of soldiers would attack. This frustrated Cornwallis to no end. Colonists would fight out of forests and swamps if need be.
Patriots turn the tide Patriots started to force the British to retreat from North Carolina in September 1780 at Kings Mountain. In October, Nathaniel Greene replaced Gates and split the army in two.
General Greene One section of the army defeated the British at Cowpens, S.C., while the other fought guerilla wars. Greene reunited the army and fought Cornwallis at Guilford Courthouse in NC. He lost, but the British suffered great losses Cornwallis ended his campaign to take the Carolinas.
British retreat The British retreated up to Virginia, carrying out raids. They nearly captured Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia Legislature. Jefferson fled on horseback just before the British arrived. Washington sent Lafayette south to fight Cornwallis, meanwhile Cornwallis set up camp at Yorktown, Virginia, awaiting orders from Clinton in the New York.
Washington and the North In 1780, 5000 French troops finally arrived at Newport, Rhode Island, to cheers of many Americans Washington camped north of NYC waiting for a second French Fleet, but had to wait a year until 1781 until they arrived. He wanted to attack Clinton in New York once reinforcements came
Change of Plans In August, 1781. Washington learned that Francois de Grasse, the French naval commander, was heading toward Chesapeake Bay instead of New York. Washington decided he would advance on the British at Yorktown instead of New York City.
Secrecy Washington knew he must convince Clinton to think the Patriots still planned to attack New York, so Clinton did not send aid South. He joined with the French troops at Rhode Island and marched south The secrecy was so strict the most of the soldiers did not know where they were going. Washington also ordered soldiers from the West to march to Virginia as well.
Yorktown The French fleet arrived just in time Now America had 17,000 combined troops against Cornwallis’s 8,000 British and Hessian troops at Yorktown Meanwhile, Admiral De Grasse’s fleet kept the British from escaping by sea The rest of the British Army was stationed in New York, unable to help Cornwallis
Cornwallis’s Defeat On October 11 th the Americans and French began a tremendous attack The battle was violent and bloody, and British supplies ran low and many soldiers were sick On October 19 th, Cornwallis surrendered, and the Patriots won The Battle of Yorktown.
Cornwallis’s Defeat French and Americans stood in two rows while the British marched between them, turning in their weapons. A French band played, “Yankee Doodle.” while a British band responded with “The world turned upside down.”
End of the War The British still held New York, Charleston, and Savannah However, the King now felt the war would be to costly for Britain to pursue. King George III appointed ministers who were prepared to give Americans their independence
Treaty of Paris He two sides sent delegates to Paris to work out a treaty Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay represented the United States The American congress ratified, or Approved, the preliminary treaty in April 1783. Britain made peace with France, Spain, and the Netherlands as well
Terms of the Treaty The United States now claimed land from the Atlantic Ocean, west to the Mississippi River, and north of Spanish Florida. The British agreed to remove all troops in return for payment owed to them by colonists.
Washington’s Farewell British troops left New York City in November 1783. The war had ended Weeks later Washington resigned as commander of the army, and retired to his home at Mount Vernon, with a tearful goodbye from congress. He planned to live quietly for his remaining years.
Warm-up 1/7/06 What was Washington’s gamble that ended the war?