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A Great Cloud of Witnesses: 40 Saints from Catholic History Session 9: 15 th Century – Vincent Ferrer, Casimir 16 th Century – Thomas More, Teresa of Avila.

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Presentation on theme: "A Great Cloud of Witnesses: 40 Saints from Catholic History Session 9: 15 th Century – Vincent Ferrer, Casimir 16 th Century – Thomas More, Teresa of Avila."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Great Cloud of Witnesses: 40 Saints from Catholic History Session 9: 15 th Century – Vincent Ferrer, Casimir 16 th Century – Thomas More, Teresa of Avila

2 15 th Century Avignon Papacy ( ) Avignon Papacy ( ) After Pope Boniface VIII ( ) lost his epic struggle with king Philip IV of France After Pope Boniface VIII ( ) lost his epic struggle with king Philip IV of France 7 popes, all of them French, resided at Avignon in S. France 7 popes, all of them French, resided at Avignon in S. France Sign of power of French monarch & weakness of papacy Sign of power of French monarch & weakness of papacy Beginning of the age of strong “nationalism” in Europe Beginning of the age of strong “nationalism” in Europe Papacy seen by rest of Europe as controlled by French interests Papacy seen by rest of Europe as controlled by French interests Development of lavish papal court at Avignon Development of lavish papal court at Avignon Required money: papacy developed system of taxes & fees Required money: papacy developed system of taxes & fees Led to deep resentments among the nations of Europe: their hard-earned money sent to Rome (important in later Reformation) Led to deep resentments among the nations of Europe: their hard-earned money sent to Rome (important in later Reformation)

3 Gregory XI ( ) was the last French pope Gregory XI ( ) was the last French pope Focused on returning the papacy to Rome Focused on returning the papacy to Rome Catherine of Siena strongly urged him to do so Catherine of Siena strongly urged him to do so 1377: Gregory entered Rome with large force 1377: Gregory entered Rome with large force Soon focused on the repression of heresy Soon focused on the repression of heresy Situation in Italy grew worse: hostility of Romans over excessive force Situation in Italy grew worse: hostility of Romans over excessive force Gregory died in 1378 Gregory died in 1378

4 The Great Western Schism: The Great Western Schism: At the conclave in Rome 12 of the 16 cardinals were French At the conclave in Rome 12 of the 16 cardinals were French Roman people feared election of a Frenchman and return to Avignon Roman people feared election of a Frenchman and return to Avignon Mob surrounded building: “Give us a Roman, or at least an Italian” Mob surrounded building: “Give us a Roman, or at least an Italian” Cardinals elected an Italian, archbishop of Bari: Pope Urban VI Cardinals elected an Italian, archbishop of Bari: Pope Urban VI He soon became abusive and paranoid: rumors that he had gone mad He soon became abusive and paranoid: rumors that he had gone mad Cardinals withdrew to Anagni Cardinals withdrew to Anagni Claimed they had elected him under coercion: thus the election was invalid Claimed they had elected him under coercion: thus the election was invalid Elected a Frenchman as new pope: Clement VII ( ) Elected a Frenchman as new pope: Clement VII ( ) Urban refused to step down: appointed 26 new Italian cardinals Urban refused to step down: appointed 26 new Italian cardinals Clement and his supporters took up residence at Avignon Clement and his supporters took up residence at Avignon Thus, two rival popes and two rival colleges of cardinals Thus, two rival popes and two rival colleges of cardinals

5 What made this papal schism different from previous ones? What made this papal schism different from previous ones? This was the 29 th time in papal history that there was a rival claim This was the 29 th time in papal history that there was a rival claim But same cardinals elected both of these candidates But same cardinals elected both of these candidates Development of two rival colleges of cardinals: Rome & Avignon Development of two rival colleges of cardinals: Rome & Avignon Nations of Europe took sides: 100 Years War ( ) Nations of Europe took sides: 100 Years War ( ) Saints on both sides: Catherine of Siena for Urban, Vincent Ferrer for Clement Saints on both sides: Catherine of Siena for Urban, Vincent Ferrer for Clement This papal schism was long lasting: 40 years ( ) This papal schism was long lasting: 40 years ( ) Roman line: Urban VI ( ), Boniface IX ( ), Innocent VII ( ), Gregory XII ( ) Roman line: Urban VI ( ), Boniface IX ( ), Innocent VII ( ), Gregory XII ( ) Avignon line: Clement VII ( ), Benedict XIII ( ) Avignon line: Clement VII ( ), Benedict XIII ( ) From 1408 there would be three rival popes! From 1408 there would be three rival popes!

6 The universities took the lead in seeking resolution The universities took the lead in seeking resolution But ancient canonical principle: “Pope is judged by no one” But ancient canonical principle: “Pope is judged by no one” Drastic times demand drastic measures: Drastic times demand drastic measures: 1) Gather an army and force one pope to abdicate? 2) Convince both to abdicate & elect new pope? 3) Call a general council to resolve the matter Meanwhile, Christendom grew weary of this scandal Meanwhile, Christendom grew weary of this scandal Roman cardinals exasperated, began negotiating with Avignon party Roman cardinals exasperated, began negotiating with Avignon party

7 1409: The “Council” of Pisa 1409: The “Council” of Pisa Both Gregory XII & Benedict XIII refused to attend Both Gregory XII & Benedict XIII refused to attend Yet the council had the backing of most of the courts of Europe Yet the council had the backing of most of the courts of Europe Rather than try to determine legitimate pope, it deposed both Rather than try to determine legitimate pope, it deposed both An Italian was then elected as Alexander V: but he died within the year An Italian was then elected as Alexander V: but he died within the year Meanwhile both Gregory & Benedict continued to claim legitimacy Meanwhile both Gregory & Benedict continued to claim legitimacy Cardinals at Pisa elected John XXIII ( ) to succeed Alexander Cardinals at Pisa elected John XXIII ( ) to succeed Alexander He was politically conniving and morally corrupt: unable to command the allegiance of Europe and lead the papacy out of schism He was politically conniving and morally corrupt: unable to command the allegiance of Europe and lead the papacy out of schism

8 Thus, in 1410 there were now three rival popes Thus, in 1410 there were now three rival popes John XXIII got into political trouble in Italy: had to flee and seek help from the German Emperor, Sigismund John XXIII got into political trouble in Italy: had to flee and seek help from the German Emperor, Sigismund He offered John protection on condition that he call a general council He offered John protection on condition that he call a general council John issued bull calling Church leaders to council at Constance John issued bull calling Church leaders to council at Constance What of the John XXIII of the 1960’s? What of the John XXIII of the 1960’s?

9 : Council of Constance (N. Switzerland) : Council of Constance (N. Switzerland) John XXIII convoked it, hoped it would secure his papal claim John XXIII convoked it, hoped it would secure his papal claim But the Council wanted to “wipe the slate clean” But the Council wanted to “wipe the slate clean” It deposed John XXIII, Gregory XII, & Benedict XIII It deposed John XXIII, Gregory XII, & Benedict XIII The Council elected new pope: Martin V ( ) The Council elected new pope: Martin V ( ) By the cardinals and six delegates from each nation: new! By the cardinals and six delegates from each nation: new! Martin triumphantly returned to Rome Martin triumphantly returned to Rome Set about repairing city: beginnings of Renaissance Rome Set about repairing city: beginnings of Renaissance Rome Thus, Constance successfully ended Great Western Schism Thus, Constance successfully ended Great Western Schism

10 Key acts of the Council of Constance Key acts of the Council of Constance Desire to reform the Church “in head & members” Desire to reform the Church “in head & members” Haec Sancta (“This Holy Council”): declared superiority of a general council over the pope Haec Sancta (“This Holy Council”): declared superiority of a general council over the pope Culmination of conciliarist ideas: reaction to papal intransigence Culmination of conciliarist ideas: reaction to papal intransigence Frequens: popes must call councils at regular intervals (every 10 years) Frequens: popes must call councils at regular intervals (every 10 years) Condemnation of Bohemian reformer, John Huss: burned at stake Condemnation of Bohemian reformer, John Huss: burned at stake Had been guaranteed “safe conduct” by Sigismund: Luther later Had been guaranteed “safe conduct” by Sigismund: Luther later General condemnation of abuses: simony, pluralism, absenteeism General condemnation of abuses: simony, pluralism, absenteeism But lacked the “teeth” to enforce these decrees But lacked the “teeth” to enforce these decrees

11 Constance marks beginnings of “Conciliarism” Constance marks beginnings of “Conciliarism” Question of relative authority of popes and councils unclear Question of relative authority of popes and councils unclear Early stirrings of “constitutional” or “democratic” political theories Early stirrings of “constitutional” or “democratic” political theories The State derives its authority from the people, the Pope from the Church as a whole The State derives its authority from the people, the Pope from the Church as a whole Councils are ultimate authority: Pope is simply delegated by them Councils are ultimate authority: Pope is simply delegated by them In “emergency” situations, or more regularly? In “emergency” situations, or more regularly? : century of cries for reform of the Church : century of cries for reform of the Church

12 Council of Basel-Florence ( ) Council of Basel-Florence ( ) Martin V obeyed Frequens, convoked council in 1431 at Basel Martin V obeyed Frequens, convoked council in 1431 at Basel But then he died before it began But then he died before it began Pope Eugene IV ( ) Pope Eugene IV ( ) Fearful of conciliar power, he immediately dissolved Council of Basel Fearful of conciliar power, he immediately dissolved Council of Basel The bishops, and his own papal representative, resisted this The bishops, and his own papal representative, resisted this He was forced to recognize validity of Basel in 1433 He was forced to recognize validity of Basel in 1433 Council turned more radical: suppressed annates & other papal taxes Council turned more radical: suppressed annates & other papal taxes

13 Meanwhile, the Ottoman Turks were threatening Constantinople Meanwhile, the Ottoman Turks were threatening Constantinople Eastern emperor and patriarch were forced to appeal to West for help Eastern emperor and patriarch were forced to appeal to West for help They sought reunion, but would rather deal with pope than council They sought reunion, but would rather deal with pope than council Eugene moved council to Florence in 1438: he hosted the Greeks Eugene moved council to Florence in 1438: he hosted the Greeks “Rump” council defiantly remained in Basel, deposed Eugene, elected history’s last anti-pope, Felix V “Rump” council defiantly remained in Basel, deposed Eugene, elected history’s last anti-pope, Felix V This council at Basel eventually lost all support: dissolved in 1439 This council at Basel eventually lost all support: dissolved in 1439

14 Florence: decree of reunion between East & West Florence: decree of reunion between East & West East accepted doctrines of purgatory, papal primacy, and Filioque East accepted doctrines of purgatory, papal primacy, and Filioque But the faithful in the East never accepted the reunion But the faithful in the East never accepted the reunion Florence was flooded with Greeks Florence was flooded with Greeks Florentines were fascinated by the Greeks: impetus for Renaissance Florentines were fascinated by the Greeks: impetus for Renaissance 1453: Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks 1453: Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks End of Byzantine Empire End of Byzantine Empire

15 Council of Florence marks the papal defeat of conciliarism Council of Florence marks the papal defeat of conciliarism Pope Pius II: decree Execrabilis (1460) condemns conciliarism Pope Pius II: decree Execrabilis (1460) condemns conciliarism While 12 th -14 th century councils were instruments of papal authority, Constance and Basel-Florence threatened papal authority While 12 th -14 th century councils were instruments of papal authority, Constance and Basel-Florence threatened papal authority Thus, popes became suspicious of councils Thus, popes became suspicious of councils This accounts for papacy’s inability to reform itself and the Church before and soon after Martin Luther’s protests This accounts for papacy’s inability to reform itself and the Church before and soon after Martin Luther’s protests Issue would be revisited at Vatican I (1870) and Vatican II ( ) Issue would be revisited at Vatican I (1870) and Vatican II ( )

16 The 100 Years War ( ) The 100 Years War ( ) Dispute over succession to French throne (1328) Dispute over succession to French throne (1328) New tactics (infantry) & weapons (longbow & gunpowder) New tactics (infantry) & weapons (longbow & gunpowder) Long, drawn out war: devastation of countryside & peasantry Long, drawn out war: devastation of countryside & peasantry 1348: Bubonic Plague hits Europe (30-50% of population dies) 1348: Bubonic Plague hits Europe (30-50% of population dies) Joan of Arc ( ): the Maid of Orleans Joan of Arc ( ): the Maid of Orleans Believed she had visions of angels urging her to lead French troops Believed she had visions of angels urging her to lead French troops Convinced the Dauphin, who put her in charge of troops at Orleans Convinced the Dauphin, who put her in charge of troops at Orleans She led French to victory, Dauphin crowned in Reims as Charles VII She led French to victory, Dauphin crowned in Reims as Charles VII French national spirit revived, English finally defeated in 1453 French national spirit revived, English finally defeated in 1453 But Joan was captured by the English who pressured local bishop to convict her of witchcraft & heresy: burned at stake in 1431 But Joan was captured by the English who pressured local bishop to convict her of witchcraft & heresy: burned at stake in 1431 Exonerated by papal retrial in 1456; declared a saint in 1920 Exonerated by papal retrial in 1456; declared a saint in 1920

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18 Luther & the Protestant Reformation did not come out of nowhere! Luther & the Protestant Reformation did not come out of nowhere! Church of 14 th & 15 th centuries was plagued with scandals Church of 14 th & 15 th centuries was plagued with scandals Also the political world of Europe was vastly changing Also the political world of Europe was vastly changing 100 Years War, Bubonic Plague, Italian wars 100 Years War, Bubonic Plague, Italian wars Rising nationalism Rising nationalism Constant threat of the Ottoman Turks to the East Constant threat of the Ottoman Turks to the East The Reformation would be a complex mixture of religion & politics The Reformation would be a complex mixture of religion & politics But the 15 th century was also rich in reforms in theology, spirituality, & morals But the 15 th century was also rich in reforms in theology, spirituality, & morals

19 The Renaissance ( ) The Renaissance ( ) Began in Italy in the 14 th century Began in Italy in the 14 th century “Renaissance” = “rebirth” (of classical ideals, culture, art) “Renaissance” = “rebirth” (of classical ideals, culture, art) Emphasized study of Greek & Latin classics of antiquity Emphasized study of Greek & Latin classics of antiquity “Middle Ages” seen as time of darkness between 400 and 1350 “Middle Ages” seen as time of darkness between 400 and 1350 Crises of late middle ages caused people to look back to the classical age for models of how to move into the future Crises of late middle ages caused people to look back to the classical age for models of how to move into the future Classical Greece & Rome provided models for art, architecture, literature, poetry, politics, philosophy, and theology Classical Greece & Rome provided models for art, architecture, literature, poetry, politics, philosophy, and theology Questioning of medieval worldview Questioning of medieval worldview Hierarchy, community, reliance on authority, other-worldliness Hierarchy, community, reliance on authority, other-worldliness Renaissance emphasis on this world, individual, realism, human virtue Renaissance emphasis on this world, individual, realism, human virtue Very positive notion of human potential and creativity Very positive notion of human potential and creativity

20 Humanism: renewed study of the “humanities” Humanism: renewed study of the “humanities” Grammar, literature, poetry, history, philosophy, rhetoric, ethics Grammar, literature, poetry, history, philosophy, rhetoric, ethics More of a “secular” education: preparation for life in “real” world More of a “secular” education: preparation for life in “real” world Critical study of ancient and medieval texts: errors, forgeries Critical study of ancient and medieval texts: errors, forgeries 1450: Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press 1450: Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press Literature and education now much more accessible to common man Literature and education now much more accessible to common man Rapid spread of ideas Rapid spread of ideas Christian Humanists: Renaissance ideals spread to northern Europe Christian Humanists: Renaissance ideals spread to northern Europe “Return to the sources”: Bible and Church Fathers (in addition to Greek and Latin classical literature) “Return to the sources”: Bible and Church Fathers (in addition to Greek and Latin classical literature) Humanism in the north took on more Christian emphasis Humanism in the north took on more Christian emphasis

21 Desiderius Erasmus ( ): famous Christian Humanist Desiderius Erasmus ( ): famous Christian Humanist He grew to despise Scholasticism, attracted to Renaissance and humanism He grew to despise Scholasticism, attracted to Renaissance and humanism Handbook of A Christian Soldier: being a “soldier of Christ” in the midst of the world (rather than monastic withdrawal from world) Handbook of A Christian Soldier: being a “soldier of Christ” in the midst of the world (rather than monastic withdrawal from world) Emphasized inner devotion: religion of the heart Emphasized inner devotion: religion of the heart Poked fun at society: especially monks, friars, theologians, cardinals, popes Poked fun at society: especially monks, friars, theologians, cardinals, popes Frustrated with the superstition and irrationality of popular devotion Frustrated with the superstition and irrationality of popular devotion Became friends with Thomas More and bishop John Fisher in England Became friends with Thomas More and bishop John Fisher in England His writings became very popular: printing press His writings became very popular: printing press “Erasmus laid the egg and Luther hatched it” “Erasmus laid the egg and Luther hatched it” Eventually clashed with Luther over issue of freedom of will Eventually clashed with Luther over issue of freedom of will He wanted to reform the Church from within He wanted to reform the Church from within

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23 The Renaissance papacy The Renaissance papacy Martin V ( ) and Eugene IV ( ) Martin V ( ) and Eugene IV ( ) Began rebuilding of Rome after neglect during Avignon Papacy and Schism Began rebuilding of Rome after neglect during Avignon Papacy and Schism Nicholas V ( ) Nicholas V ( ) Scholar and firm supporter of Renaissance learning and art Scholar and firm supporter of Renaissance learning and art Real founder of the Vatican Library: very important manuscripts Real founder of the Vatican Library: very important manuscripts Moved papal residence from dilapidated Lateran Cathedral to Vatican Hill Moved papal residence from dilapidated Lateran Cathedral to Vatican Hill Sixtus IV ( ): family connections & gifts got him elected Sixtus IV ( ): family connections & gifts got him elected At request of Ferdinand and Isabella he set up Spanish Inquisition in 1478 At request of Ferdinand and Isabella he set up Spanish Inquisition in 1478 Transformed Rome from Medieval to Renaissance city Transformed Rome from Medieval to Renaissance city Drew greatest painters and sculptors to Rome Drew greatest painters and sculptors to Rome Built Sistine Chapel (later works of Boticelli, Raphael, Michelangelo) Built Sistine Chapel (later works of Boticelli, Raphael, Michelangelo) Patron of music, founded Sistine Choir, added to Vatican Library Patron of music, founded Sistine Choir, added to Vatican Library

24 Alexander VI ( ): Rodrigo de Borgia (Spanish) Alexander VI ( ): Rodrigo de Borgia (Spanish)

25 His uncle, Pope Callistus III, made him a cardinal at 25; enriched him His uncle, Pope Callistus III, made him a cardinal at 25; enriched him Lived openly licentious life, fathered several children Lived openly licentious life, fathered several children Elected as pope largely through bribery Elected as pope largely through bribery Made his son, Cesare, key prince of Papal States (Machiavelli’s The Prince) Made his son, Cesare, key prince of Papal States (Machiavelli’s The Prince) 1492: Moors driven from last stronghold in Spain (Granada), Columbus sails 1492: Moors driven from last stronghold in Spain (Granada), Columbus sails 1493: pope drew a line of demarcation in New World (Spain & Portugal) 1493: pope drew a line of demarcation in New World (Spain & Portugal) Granted monarchs control of Church in lands they colonized Granted monarchs control of Church in lands they colonized Julius II ( ) Julius II ( ) Sworn enemy of Alexander VI and the Borgias, elected through bribery Sworn enemy of Alexander VI and the Borgias, elected through bribery Forceful ruler, ruthless, violent: il terribile (warrior for Christ) Forceful ruler, ruthless, violent: il terribile (warrior for Christ) In full armor he led papal armies into battle: took back key cities In full armor he led papal armies into battle: took back key cities Began use of Swiss mercenaries: Swiss Guard Began use of Swiss mercenaries: Swiss Guard Commissioned Bramante to build St. Peter’s: Commissioned Bramante to build St. Peter’s: Genius patron of arts: Michelangelo’s ceiling of Sistine Chapel Genius patron of arts: Michelangelo’s ceiling of Sistine Chapel

26 Vincent Ferrer, priest: (April 5) Vincent Ferrer, priest: (April 5) Born in Valencia, Spain: English father, Spanish mother Born in Valencia, Spain: English father, Spanish mother Early academic brilliance and devout faith: joined Dominicans in 1367 Early academic brilliance and devout faith: joined Dominicans in 1367 Taught philosophy and theology at various universities in Spain Taught philosophy and theology at various universities in Spain 1379: he became prior of the Dominican house in Valencia 1379: he became prior of the Dominican house in Valencia Strong personality: totally dedicated to his Order and the Church Strong personality: totally dedicated to his Order and the Church Became known as accomplished preacher: moved listeners to conversion Became known as accomplished preacher: moved listeners to conversion Even converted some important Jews to Christianity Even converted some important Jews to Christianity He supported the Avignon popes during Great Western Schism He supported the Avignon popes during Great Western Schism Especially the Spanish cardinal Pedro de Luna: Benedict XIII Especially the Spanish cardinal Pedro de Luna: Benedict XIII Vincent became Benedict’s confessor and advisor in 1394 Vincent became Benedict’s confessor and advisor in 1394 Eventually Vincent saw Benedict as hindering moves towards healing schism Eventually Vincent saw Benedict as hindering moves towards healing schism 1399: he left the service of Benedict XIII 1399: he left the service of Benedict XIII

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28 He then had a vision of Mary, flanked by Francis and Dominic He then had a vision of Mary, flanked by Francis and Dominic Began work as a roving preacher in Spain, France, and Italy Began work as a roving preacher in Spain, France, and Italy Sermons stressed need for repentance and fear of hell: severe penance Sermons stressed need for repentance and fear of hell: severe penance Large crowds flocked to hear him: credited with working many miracles Large crowds flocked to hear him: credited with working many miracles Council of Constance convened in 1414 to heal the schism Council of Constance convened in 1414 to heal the schism Vincent again tried to convince Benedict XIII to resign: for unity of Church Vincent again tried to convince Benedict XIII to resign: for unity of Church He even persuaded king of Aragon to stop supporting Benedict He even persuaded king of Aragon to stop supporting Benedict Finally, Benedict resigned and Constance was able to heal the schism Finally, Benedict resigned and Constance was able to heal the schism Vincent spent last 3 years of his life preaching in northern France Vincent spent last 3 years of his life preaching in northern France He died in 1419 there: immediately venerated as a saint He died in 1419 there: immediately venerated as a saint Officially canonized in 1455 Officially canonized in 1455

29 Casimir: (March 4) Casimir: (March 4) Born in 1458 in Poland Born in 1458 in Poland Third of 13 children of King Casimir IV of Poland and Elizabeth of Austria Third of 13 children of King Casimir IV of Poland and Elizabeth of Austria He was educated by John Dlugosz: a brilliant priest and teacher in Cracow He was educated by John Dlugosz: a brilliant priest and teacher in Cracow He was a strict but inspiring teacher: like a second father to Casimir He was a strict but inspiring teacher: like a second father to Casimir At age 15 Casimir was sent by his father to lead army into Hungary At age 15 Casimir was sent by his father to lead army into Hungary At the request of Hungarian nobles: against King Matthius of Hungary At the request of Hungarian nobles: against King Matthius of Hungary Yet the nobles’ support soon melted away, and so did Casimir’s own army Yet the nobles’ support soon melted away, and so did Casimir’s own army So he called off the expedition So he called off the expedition Meanwhile Pope Sixtus IV appealed to King of Poland to desist: feared that war would only help the Turkish cause Meanwhile Pope Sixtus IV appealed to King of Poland to desist: feared that war would only help the Turkish cause So the king sent messengers to his son: but he had already called it off So the king sent messengers to his son: but he had already called it off The king thought his son retreated out of fear: ashamed he banned his son from Cracow The king thought his son retreated out of fear: ashamed he banned his son from Cracow

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31 Young Casimir retired to a castle in Dobzki Young Casimir retired to a castle in Dobzki He would never be persuaded to take up arms again: even by his father and later requests by Hungarian nobles He would never be persuaded to take up arms again: even by his father and later requests by Hungarian nobles For this reason Casimir is known as “The Peacemaker” For this reason Casimir is known as “The Peacemaker” He had no ambition to rule Poland after his father He had no ambition to rule Poland after his father Dedicated his life to care fro poor, oppressed, pilgrims, and captives Dedicated his life to care fro poor, oppressed, pilgrims, and captives Became known as “Defender of the Poor” Became known as “Defender of the Poor” His own personal life was more monastic than princely: meek and modest His own personal life was more monastic than princely: meek and modest Focused more on the Church than the royal court: most of day in church Focused more on the Church than the royal court: most of day in church He had a deep devotion to Mary He had a deep devotion to Mary Though compassionate with the poor, he was harsh towards schismatics Though compassionate with the poor, he was harsh towards schismatics

32 No one was ever able to persuade Casimir to marry No one was ever able to persuade Casimir to marry He predicted his own death: died of tuberculosis at age 23 in 1484 He predicted his own death: died of tuberculosis at age 23 in 1484 Buried in Church of Peter & Paul in Vilnius (now capital of Lithuania) Buried in Church of Peter & Paul in Vilnius (now capital of Lithuania) Many miracles were soon reported at his tomb Many miracles were soon reported at his tomb King Sigismund of Poland petitioned Pope Leo X for canonization King Sigismund of Poland petitioned Pope Leo X for canonization 1602: he was canonized by Pope Clement VIII 1602: he was canonized by Pope Clement VIII Feast extended to the whole Church in 1621 Feast extended to the whole Church in 1621 Patron saint of Poland and Lithuania: strong devotion among Polish and Lithuanian immigrants to USA and Canada Patron saint of Poland and Lithuania: strong devotion among Polish and Lithuanian immigrants to USA and Canada Portrayed in art with lily in hand (peace), scroll with his favorite hymn to Mary, and crown at his feet Portrayed in art with lily in hand (peace), scroll with his favorite hymn to Mary, and crown at his feet

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