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Unit 6: Becoming a World Power =IaQanbEyucY&feature=related =IaQanbEyucY&feature=related.

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1 Unit 6: Becoming a World Power =IaQanbEyucY&feature=related =IaQanbEyucY&feature=related

2 Progressivism Many groups formed the “Progressives”, or early 20th century reformers. Many groups formed the “Progressives”, or early 20th century reformers. Muckraker writers attacked wealth, poverty, government, disease, vice, culture and many other “social ills.” Muckraker writers attacked wealth, poverty, government, disease, vice, culture and many other “social ills.” The rise of Socialism, especially from Eastern European immigrants, as a political movement, began to explode, particularly in urban areas. The rise of Socialism, especially from Eastern European immigrants, as a political movement, began to explode, particularly in urban areas. Feminists made especially strong gains with attacks on Gov’t for child labor laws, poor working conditions and safe food products to improve conditions for their families. Feminists made especially strong gains with attacks on Gov’t for child labor laws, poor working conditions and safe food products to improve conditions for their families.

3 “Muckrakers” Hard hitting news stories began circulating in newspapers & magazines which created social pioneers called “muckrakers.” Lincoln Steffens, and Ida Tarbell led the way and attacked trusts, Gov’t, Wall Street, and social problems like slums, “white- slaves,” child labor practices, alcohol abuse, drugs, and prostitution. Perhaps the most renowned was Upton Sinclair, who exposed filthy conditions within the Chicago meatpacking industry in his book “The Jungle.”

4 Settlement Houses Immigrants found only a few willing to give them assistance such as Jane Addams who ran Hull House in Chicago to ease settlement, educate and help. Other settlement houses sprang up and many immigrants were “indoctrinated” into US culture, life and English lang. Addams also fought for women’s right’s especially suffrage and nominated Teddy Roosevelt later for Pres.

5 Battling Social Problems Sanitation, safety and child labor were among the first areas to be reformed. “Sweatshops” dominated the textile industry as mostly women & children toiled in horrendous conditions. Emergence of Jim Crow laws in the South, upheld by Plessy v. Ferguson in the SC, legalized segregation. NAACP, founded by DuBois, worked to end segregation and push for equality for blacks.

6 Political Progressivism Progressives belonged to both major parties and were in all regions and levels of Gov’t. Progressives belonged to both major parties and were in all regions and levels of Gov’t. Regaining political power from the “special interests” was a major goal. Regaining political power from the “special interests” was a major goal. Direct primaries, initiatives, referendums (a bill presented by the people) and the recall were also goals. Direct primaries, initiatives, referendums (a bill presented by the people) and the recall were also goals. 17th Amend- direct election of US Senators. 17th Amend- direct election of US Senators. 18 th Amend- Prohibition-eliminate all alcohol. 18 th Amend- Prohibition-eliminate all alcohol. 19th Amend- Women’s suffrage, led by Stanton, Catt, and Anthony, they pushed for a Con. Amendment, got states to let them vote, and used the courts to get their right to vote. 19th Amend- Women’s suffrage, led by Stanton, Catt, and Anthony, they pushed for a Con. Amendment, got states to let them vote, and used the courts to get their right to vote. v=FLR1Yje866g v=FLR1Yje866g v=FLR1Yje866g v=FLR1Yje866g

7 Imperialism Nationalistic & Patriotic movements began to spread worldwide. American exports boomed as did new found wealth and power. Adm. Mahan’s book Sea Power, said US needs a strong navy to be a world wide power. Africa, Asia and Pacific islands were scooped up quickly by the world’s powers. Eng., Ger., Jap., and the US competed for colonies, exports, raw materials and power. A revolution led by Sanford Dole and backed by the US Army seized control of the Hawaiian Islands, which later became a republic then a US territory.

8 Cuban Revolt Cuban “insurrectos” fighting against the Spanish dictator known as the “Butcher Weiler” were threatening American investments and were sensationalized in the “yellow” press. Cuban “insurrectos” fighting against the Spanish dictator known as the “Butcher Weiler” were threatening American investments and were sensationalized in the “yellow” press. The US Gov’t responded by sending the USS Maine to Havana as a show of force, but this backfired when the it mysteriously blew up killing 260 sailors. The US Gov’t responded by sending the USS Maine to Havana as a show of force, but this backfired when the it mysteriously blew up killing 260 sailors. Spain was blamed and pressure mounted for action. Spain was blamed and pressure mounted for action.

9 “War it is…” McKinley resisted the clamor for war but finally gave in as Congress unanimously voted. McKinley resisted the clamor for war but finally gave in as Congress unanimously voted. Congress tacked on the Teller Amend. which stated that the US would make Cuba “independent.” Congress tacked on the Teller Amend. which stated that the US would make Cuba “independent.” Volunteers began to train as the Army was totally unprepared and the Navy set its sights on Manila harbor in the Philippines (owned by Spain). Volunteers began to train as the Army was totally unprepared and the Navy set its sights on Manila harbor in the Philippines (owned by Spain). U.S.S. Oregon sailed to replace the Maine, showed need for the Panama Canal. U.S.S. Oregon sailed to replace the Maine, showed need for the Panama Canal. T. Roosevelt, Asst. Sec. of the Navy ordered Adm. Dewey to be ready to attack Manila then resigned to form the “Rough Riders.” T. Roosevelt, Asst. Sec. of the Navy ordered Adm. Dewey to be ready to attack Manila then resigned to form the “Rough Riders.”

10 Spanish/American War Logistical problems such as disease, wool uniforms and transportation plagued the Army. Meanwhile, Dewey destroyed a Spanish fleet and took Manila Army efforts in Cuba suffered from the jungle and heat. Eventually the “Rough Riders” (TR) joined the charge up San Juan Hill and quickly the war was over. The Treaty of Paris 1898 gave to the US Cuba, P.R., Guam and Wake Is. and the Philippines…

11 U.S. As a World Power The US paid $20 million to Spain for their possessions. The most important was the Philippines (strategic location) in the Pacific. The US paid $20 million to Spain for their possessions. The most important was the Philippines (strategic location) in the Pacific. Pres. McKinley was reluctant to keep the Filipinos but chose to “civilize and Christianize the natives”. Pres. McKinley was reluctant to keep the Filipinos but chose to “civilize and Christianize the natives”. The Anti-Imperialist League, led by Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie and Samuel Gompers opposed US imperialism. The Anti-Imperialist League, led by Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie and Samuel Gompers opposed US imperialism. In the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo led the “insurrectos” against the US forces because they were not given their freedom. Thousands died on both sides as atrocity tales shocked Americans including water torture and concentration camps. In the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo led the “insurrectos” against the US forces because they were not given their freedom. Thousands died on both sides as atrocity tales shocked Americans including water torture and concentration camps. Millions were spent rebuilding the country afterwards. Millions were spent rebuilding the country afterwards. Philippines were not given independence until July 4th, 1946, after WWII. Philippines were not given independence until July 4th, 1946, after WWII.

12 Puerto Rico / Cuba Problems in P.R. and Cuba developed quickly post-war. Problems in P.R. and Cuba developed quickly post-war. In the 1901 Insular Cases, the Sup. Ct. ruled that the Const. does not necessarily provide rights to these new citizens or “follow the flag.” In the 1901 Insular Cases, the Sup. Ct. ruled that the Const. does not necessarily provide rights to these new citizens or “follow the flag.” In Cuba, the Platt Amend. stated that the US could intervene in the Cuban Gov’t if necessary and would have a base at Guantanamo Bay (and still do). In Cuba, the Platt Amend. stated that the US could intervene in the Cuban Gov’t if necessary and would have a base at Guantanamo Bay (and still do). US forces would be in and out of Cuba for decades to come… US forces would be in and out of Cuba for decades to come…

13 McKinley Assassination! Meanwhile the Elect. of 1900 resulted in McKinley (Rep.) defeating Wm. J. Bryan (Dem.). This time the main issue was not free silver but US imperialism. Meanwhile the Elect. of 1900 resulted in McKinley (Rep.) defeating Wm. J. Bryan (Dem.). This time the main issue was not free silver but US imperialism. McKinley’s VP was war hero Teddy Roosevelt and when McKinley was shot by an anarchist, TR became the fourth accidental Pres. McKinley’s VP was war hero Teddy Roosevelt and when McKinley was shot by an anarchist, TR became the fourth accidental Pres. TR, the youngest Pres. until that time, would recapture the power of the Presidency. TR, the youngest Pres. until that time, would recapture the power of the Presidency.

14 T.R.’s “Square Deal” TR the “trust-buster” declared a “Square Deal” for laborers with the so-called 3 C’s, “Corporations, Consumer’s and Conservation.” A coal strike in 1902 caused a shortage causing TR to use the big stick as he threatened to run the mines with US troops. 1st time the Fed. Gov’t sided with laborers, a major change. “trust-busting” was the act of breaking up large corporations that are hurting the country. The Federal Gov’t forced businesses to collective bargaining, increase pay and shorten worker hours.

15 T.R.’s Contributions With the publication of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, TR pushed the Meat Inspection Act and later the Pure Food and Drug Act (today the F.D.A.). With the publication of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, TR pushed the Meat Inspection Act and later the Pure Food and Drug Act (today the F.D.A.). These acts were designed to insure proper inspection and purity of meats, foods and drugs. These acts were designed to insure proper inspection and purity of meats, foods and drugs. Some western lands had already been set aside as National Parks including Yellowstone, but TR pushed to create more and protect US timber. Some western lands had already been set aside as National Parks including Yellowstone, but TR pushed to create more and protect US timber. TR set aside 250 million acres to conserve US resources and helped John Muir begin the Sierra club. TR set aside 250 million acres to conserve US resources and helped John Muir begin the Sierra club.

16 Roosevelt Corollary Following Panama’s independence, TR initiated the digging of the “big ditch” or Panama Canal Europe’s attempts to influence Latin American countries led to the so-called “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine. TR promised “preventative intervention” by the US if we believed it was in our national interest. TR would become the “policeman of the Caribbean” and his “big stick diplomacy” led to years of conflict.

17 Eastern Relations & The Nobel Peace Prize Meanwhile in China, new “spheres of influence”/ports came under siege by the so-called “boxers”. A “multi- national force” brutally put down the rebellion. Meanwhile in China, new “spheres of influence”/ports came under siege by the so-called “boxers”. A “multi- national force” brutally put down the rebellion. The “Open Door Policy” would follow in China as the US guaranteed China’s “territorial integrity.” The “Open Door Policy” would follow in China as the US guaranteed China’s “territorial integrity.” The Caribbean was called the “Yankee lake” and led Latin Americans to call the US foreign policy the “Bad Neighbor Policy.” The Caribbean was called the “Yankee lake” and led Latin Americans to call the US foreign policy the “Bad Neighbor Policy.” Following TR’s reelection in 1904, he turned to peacemaker on the world stage. Following TR’s reelection in 1904, he turned to peacemaker on the world stage. The Russo-Japanese War, won by Japan, gave TR an opportunity as peacemaker, which led to his winning the Nobel Peace Prize, but strained relations with Russia and Japan. The Russo-Japanese War, won by Japan, gave TR an opportunity as peacemaker, which led to his winning the Nobel Peace Prize, but strained relations with Russia and Japan.


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