Just as the Scientific Revolution paved the way for the Enlightenment … Paving the way
…Enlightenment ideas paved the way for the French Revolution. There was already great unrest in France, caused by high prices and high taxes, but there were also disturbing questions about issues of governmental legitimacy raised by people like Rousseau and Voltaire. Unrest in France
This statue of Voltaire (1694 – 1778) stands today in the Pantheon in Paris. Voltaire
Voltaire used satire to attack his opponents. He never stopped fighting for tolerance reason freedom of religious belief freedom of speech. Satire
Jean Jacques Rousseau was passionately committed to individual freedom. He wrote, “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Chains
Rousseau’s crypt is at the Pantheon in Paris. Rousseau
Many members of the Third Estate were inspired by these Enlightenment ideas, and they wanted representation in government. They no longer could accept the monarch’s belief in the “divine right.” No more divine right!
When France was facing bankruptcy, Louis XVI wanted to tax the aristocrats. The Second Estate forced him to call a meeting of the Estates-General. The Meeting
Under medieval rules, each estate had one vote. The First Estate – one vote The Second Estate – one vote The Third Estate – one vote The Three Estates
The Third Estate delegates, with their views shaped by the Enlightenment, wanted each delegate to have a vote. They wanted political change! We Want Change! Change…
Delacroix expressed the revolutionary ideas in his painting, “Liberte.” Delacroix
On June 17, 1789, the Third Estate voted to establish the National Assembly. That was the first deliberate act of revolution. REVOLUTION!
Locked out of their meeting room, they broke down a door to an indoor tennis court. The Tennis Court Oath
Here they pledged to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution. A New Constitution
Here’s the current appearance of the former Jeu de Paume in Versailles. The Jeu de Paume
Meanwhile, in Paris, on July 14, 1789, a mob tried to get gunpowder from the Bastille, a prison. Today there’s a monument at the location of the former prison. The Former Bastille
1789 - 1791 The National Assembly tried to make political reform. The National Assembly
1791: The Legislative Assembly, split into three general groups, had many problems to solve. Radicals Moderates Conservatives Political Factions
The extreme radicals were the sans-culotte. The extreme conservatives were the emigres. Political Extremes
The Legislative Assembly eventually gave up the idea of forming a limited monarchy; the new governing body called itself the National Convention. The Legislative Assembly
The National Convention abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. France is a republic! September, 1792: A Republic
Sculpture of the National Convention at the Pantheon. The National Convention
Robespierre won the power struggle; attempts were made to destroy all traces of the monarchy and nobility. That led to the Reign of Terror. 1793 - 1794 The Reign of Terror
“Revolutions devour their own children.” July 28, 1794: Robespierre himself became a victim of the guillotine. End of the Reign of Terror
Moderate leaders drafted a new plan of government. The power is put in the hands of the Directory. 1795: The Directory
Though corrupt, the Directory did provide France with a period of order. They also found the right general to command France’s armies: Napoleon Bonaparte A New General
Crossing the Alps, Napoleon led a series of remarkable victories. A Victorious Leader
Antoine-Jean Gros painted this tribute to Napoleon. Tribute to Napoleon
BUT, Napoleon wanted even more power. 1799: He staged a coup d’etat. The Coup d’Etat
But that wasn’t enough – Napoleon wanted MORE power. 1804: With the support of the French voters, Napoleon made himself emperor. More power!
By Jacque Louis David David was an ardent Bonapartist. Napoleon’s Coronation
Today David’s painting is at the Louvre in Paris. David’s Painting
BUT, Napoleon wanted an empire, too. His move into Spain outraged the Spanish people. And – an empire!
Goya’s painting “The Second of May” shows Spanish resistance to the French troops. Spanish Resistance
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