Presentation on theme: "Teaching Text Structure October 2009 Pearl River County School District S. Baudoin."— Presentation transcript:
Teaching Text Structure October 2009 Pearl River County School District S. Baudoin
Sequential Order Texts that follow this structure tell the order in which steps in a process or series of events occur. Questions to Consider ◦ What happened? ◦ What is the sequence of events? ◦ What are the sub-stages? Graphic Organizers ◦ Flow Map ◦ Multi-flow Map ◦ Timeline
Sequential Order Signal Words afterafterwardas soon asbefore duringfinallyfirstfollowing immediatelyinitiallylatermeanwhile nextnot long afternowon (date) precedingsecondsoonthen thirdtodayuntilwhen
Compare and Contrast Texts that follow this structure tell about the differences and similarities of two or more objects, places, events or ideas by grouping their traits for comparison. Questions to Consider ◦ What are the similar and different qualities of these things? ◦ What qualities of each thing correspond to one another? In what way? Graphic Organizers ◦ Double Bubble Map ◦ Venn Diagram
Compare and Contrast Signal Words althoughas well asas opposed toboth butcompared withdifferent fromeither...or even thoughhoweverinstead ofin common on the other handotherwisesimilar tosimilarly stillyet
Description This structure resembles an outline. Each section opens with its main idea, then elaborates on it, sometimes dividing the elaboration into subsections. Questions to Consider ◦ What are you describing? ◦ What are its qualities? Graphic Organizers ◦ Bubble Map
Description Signal Words aboveacrossalongappears to be as inbehindbelowbeside betweendownin back ofin front of looks likenearon top ofonto outsideoversuch asto the right/left under
Problem-Solution The writer presents a problem then expounds upon possible solutions for that problem. Questions to Consider ◦ What is the problem? ◦ What are the possible solutions? ◦ Which solution is best? ◦ How will you implement this solution? Graphic Organizers ◦ Circle Map ◦ Flow Map ◦ Multi-flow Map
Problem-Solution Signal Words the question isone answer isone reason for recommendations includebecausecause sincethereforeconsequently as a result ofthis let toco so thatneverthelessaccordingly if... thenthus
Cause and Effect In texts that follow this structure, the reader is told the result of an event or occurrence and the reasons it happened. Questions to Consider ◦ What are the causes and effects of this event? ◦ What might happen next? Graphic Organizers ◦ Multi-flow Map
Cause and Effect Signal Words accordinglyas a result ofbecausebegins with consequentlyeffects offinallyfirst for this reasonhow tohowif...then in order tois caused byleads/led tomay be due to nextso thatsteps involvedtherefore thuswhen...then
Examples of Text Structure Description Example: "The crocodile is the master of deception in the water. It stalks its prey and then swiftly closes in for the kill.“ Problem/Solution Example: "One problem to resolve in crocodile watching is transportation. How can an observer get close enough to watch without scaring it away or being attacked?“ Sequential Order Example: "Archaeologists have helped us to understand that the evolution of the crocodile began with...”
More Examples Comparison/Contrast Example: "The power of the crocodile is like that of a monstrous machine. With one lunge it can destroy its prey and protect the kill from other predators.“ Cause/Effect Example: "We observed the crocodile as it stalked a raccoon moving through the moonlight toward the edge of the water. As a result of a noise we made, the raccoon bolted...“ Directions Example: "When observing a crocodile, first you must...”
How to Teach Text Structure Introduce the idea that texts have a text structure. Explain to students that texts (even the text in their science and social studies textbooks) have different organizational patterns. These organizational patterns are called text structures. Introduce common text structures. Explain that text structures can often be identified by certain signal words.
How to Teach Text Structure Show examples of paragraphs that correspond to each text structure. Make an outline of the text to find how the text is structured. Examine topic sentences that clue the reader to a specific structure. Look for the signal words that are associated with each text structure. Highlight all the signal words in the text.
How to Teach Text Structure Model the writing of a paragraph that uses a specific text structure. Have students try writing paragraphs on their own that follow a specific text structure. Writing paragraphs that follow certain text structures will help students recognize these text structures when they are reading.
Strategies to Teach Text Structures during Writing Instruction Provide explicit instruction. For example, the teacher shows students specifically how and when to use strategies such as attending to signal words while reading different content areas or using signal words when writing expository text. Scaffold instruction. For example, the teacher helps students by providing some clues and supports as they attempt to identify the text structures in various texts. One clue might be to provide students with examples of situations where these text structures are most commonly used. Model the use of strategies. For example, while students watch, the teacher writes a paragraph using a particular text structure and describes her actions as she is writing.
More Strategies Model a think-aloud strategy. This strategy is best used by the teacher as part of a modeling process, as described above. In addition, the students are encouraged to talk aloud as they engage in the processes. For example, the teacher asks students to talk about the clues in a given text as they try to identify the text structure. Ask focusing questions. Teachers can use focusing questions as a means of scaffolding the use of strategies or assisting students in the think-aloud process. For example, the teacher asks a student which signal word might be best to show a particular relationship among ideas in a text structure. Use and create graphic organizers. For example, the teacher models charting the structure of specific paragraphs while reading and also provides practice in using the graphic organizer to write different text genres.
More Strategies Use guidelines for pattern guides and teacher- made organizers. These tools help students focus on the key elements of the reading selection. Introduce and work on patterns in this order: sequencing, cause/effect, and compare-contrast.