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 NOTICE  augment These slides are provided to augment the lectures presented in Dr. Hatley’s History 2493-US Since 1877 course. If you miss class, you.

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Presentation on theme: " NOTICE  augment These slides are provided to augment the lectures presented in Dr. Hatley’s History 2493-US Since 1877 course. If you miss class, you."— Presentation transcript:

1  NOTICE  augment These slides are provided to augment the lectures presented in Dr. Hatley’s History 2493-US Since 1877 course. If you miss class, you should not assume that merely perusing these will provide you with sufficient information to do well on examinations.

2 The Great War ( ) Triple Entente Great Britain, France, and Russia Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey

3 The Great War ( ) Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie assassinated in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia (28 June 1914) Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie assassinated in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia (28 June 1914) Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

4 The Great War ( ) Serbia Union or Death— Black Hand Gavrilo Princip ( )

5 Russian Czar Nicholas II ( ) (r ) Russian Czar Nicholas II ( ) (r )

6 The Great War ( ) German Kaiser Wilhelm II ( ) (r ) German Kaiser Wilhelm II ( ) (r )

7 The Great War ( ) The Schlieffen Plan The Schlieffen Plan Designed to prevent a two- front war (France to the west and Russia to the east) Designed to prevent a two- front war (France to the west and Russia to the east)

8 The Great War ( ) Battle of the Marne (5-12 September 1914) Battle of the Marne (5-12 September 1914) armed stalemate armed stalemate

9 The Great War ( ) In 1916, both sides launched major offensives aimed at breaking the deadlock: In 1916, both sides launched major offensives aimed at breaking the deadlock: Verdun (21 Feb — 18 Dec) Verdun (21 Feb — 18 Dec) Somme (24 June — 13 Nov) Somme (24 June — 13 Nov)

10 The Great War ( ) Meanwhile, Britain and France blockaded Germany at Sea (1915) Meanwhile, Britain and France blockaded Germany at Sea (1915) Contraband Contraband Non-Contraband Non-Contraband

11 The Great War ( ) das Unterseeboot or U-Boat das Unterseeboot or U-Boat

12 The Great War ( ) German U-Boat torpedoed RMS Lusitania; of 1,962 passengers and crew, 1,198 died, including 128 Americans (7 May 1915)

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14 RMS Arabic — 44 people killed, including 3 Americans (19 August 1915) RMS Arabic — 44 people killed, including 3 Americans (19 August 1915)

15 The Great War ( ) US President Woodrow Wilson protested Germany’s actions US President Woodrow Wilson protested Germany’s actions

16 The Great War ( ) Germany announced that passenger liners would no longer be targeted in the waters around Great Britain (20 September 1915)

17 Despite Wilson’s efforts to keep the US out of the Great War, events of early 1917 convinced him that America had to intervene: Despite Wilson’s efforts to keep the US out of the Great War, events of early 1917 convinced him that America had to intervene: US already antagonized by sinkings earlier in the war US already antagonized by sinkings earlier in the war

18 The Great War ( ) 31 January, Germany announced its policy of “unrestricted submarine warfare” to starve Britain into making peace. 31 January, Germany announced its policy of “unrestricted submarine warfare” to starve Britain into making peace. All shipping in the war zone around Great Britain and in the Mediterranean Sea was subject to U-Boat attack. All shipping in the war zone around Great Britain and in the Mediterranean Sea was subject to U-Boat attack.

19 The Great War ( ) German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann ( ) German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann ( ) Zimmermann Telegram (Sent 16 January 1917) Zimmermann Telegram (Sent 16 January 1917) Sent to the German Ambassador in Washington, DC Sent to the German Ambassador in Washington, DC Published 1 March 1917 Published 1 March 1917

20 The Great War ( ) “... lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.” “... lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”

21 The Great War ( ) German U-Boats sank three US merchant ships in the Atlantic (March) German U-Boats sank three US merchant ships in the Atlantic (March) German agents fomented strikes and planted bombs in US munitions factories German agents fomented strikes and planted bombs in US munitions factories

22 The Great War ( ) German Max Weber ( ) German Max Weber ( ) “It is as though we are being ruled by madmen....” “It is as though we are being ruled by madmen....”

23 The Great War ( )

24 German military leaders did not wish to antagonize the US further, so what were they thinking? German military leaders did not wish to antagonize the US further, so what were they thinking? The Germans determined that the US military would need at least one year to mobilize; Britain would be out of the war in six months―so they thought The Germans determined that the US military would need at least one year to mobilize; Britain would be out of the war in six months―so they thought

25 The Great War ( ) Congress approved Wilson’s request for a declaration of war, “to make the world safe for democracy.” (6 April 1917) Congress approved Wilson’s request for a declaration of war, “to make the world safe for democracy.” (6 April 1917)

26 The Great War ( ) The US declared war. Now what? The US declared war. Now what?

27 The United States in the Great War ( ) Selective Service Act (1917) established a draft, ending the time- honored volunteer system; men 21 to 30, later 18 to 45 Selective Service Act (1917) established a draft, ending the time- honored volunteer system; men 21 to 30, later 18 to 45 US government sold $5 Billion in bonds; $3 billion loaned to the Allies US government sold $5 Billion in bonds; $3 billion loaned to the Allies

28 The United States in the Great War ( ) War Industries Board — directed activities of US industries for the war effort. Food Administration — rationed grain and sugar. Americans observed “Meatless Tuesday” each week.

29 Kaiser Bill; Willy the Witless Hamburg Frankfurt Wien Dachshund

30 14,000 men of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) arrived in France (June 1917); who was in command? 14,000 men of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) arrived in France (June 1917); who was in command?

31 The United States in the Great War ( ) General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing ( ) General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing ( )

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33 Pershing and his staff in France

34 French demanded that Americans be parceled out t t t to French units as replacements General Ferdinand Foch

35 The United States in the Great War ( ) Pershing refused, stating that Americans would serve in US units commanded by US officers and NCOs; why? Pershing refused, stating that Americans would serve in US units commanded by US officers and NCOs; why?

36 The United States in the Great War ( ) American “doughboys” were untrained Americans did not speak French For the US to have a voice at the eventual peace conference, it would have to play a major role on the battlefield

37 The United States in the Great War ( ) With Russia out of the war, the Germans commenced “peace offensive” (March 1918) With Russia out of the war, the Germans commenced “peace offensive” (March 1918) First American offensive—4,000 US troops captured the French village of Cantigny (28 May 1918) First American offensive—4,000 US troops captured the French village of Cantigny (28 May 1918)

38 The United States in the Great War ( ) Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood (30 May-17 June 1918) Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood (30 May-17 June 1918) Salient at St. Mihiel (12-16 September 1918) Salient at St. Mihiel (12-16 September 1918)

39 French President Poincaré (left) and wife visit St. Mihiel the day after its liberation

40 The United States in the Great War ( ) Meuse-Argonne Offensive (26 September-11 November 1918) Armistice

41 “For a lasting victory, we must drive in Germany and dictate the terms of peace in Berlin.” “For a lasting victory, we must drive in Germany and dictate the terms of peace in Berlin.”

42 The Post-War Settlement What to do about Germany: Italy (joined the Allies in 1915) France Great Britain In 1919, leaders of various nations met in Paris, France, including the “Big Four”

43 President Wilson heads to Paris aboard the transport George Washington

44 Paris Peace Conference (1919) David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson

45 Paris Peace Conference (1919) Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Open diplomacy: no secret or entangling alliances Open diplomacy: no secret or entangling alliances No trade barriers: no tariff No trade barriers: no tariff Armaments reductions for all nations Armaments reductions for all nations National self-determination National self-determination

46 Paris Peace Conference (1919) The League of Nations: “A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.” The League of Nations: “A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”

47 Treaty of Versailles (1919) Map of Europe redrawn in accordance with Wilson’s national self-determination: Map of Europe redrawn in accordance with Wilson’s national self-determination: Austria-Hungary divided into Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia; other parts went to Bulgaria and Romania Austria-Hungary divided into Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia; other parts went to Bulgaria and Romania

48 Treaty of Versailles (1919) Germany lost all colonies and Alsace-Lorraine Rhineland (Rheinland) demilitarized (DMZ) Territory in eastern Germany, including the “Polish Corridor,” given to Poland.

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50 ARTICLE 231 — War Guilt Clause “... Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage....” ARTICLE 231 — War Guilt Clause “... Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage....” Reparations. No total amount given by 28 June 1919, but set at $33 Billion in 1921 Reparations. No total amount given by 28 June 1919, but set at $33 Billion in 1921

51 Treaty of Versailles (1919) Disarmament 4,000 officers and 100,000 soldiers Disarmament 4,000 officers and 100,000 soldiers No U-Boats, tanks, heavy artillery, nor military aircraft No U-Boats, tanks, heavy artillery, nor military aircraft

52 Treaty of Versailles (1919) League of Nations formed in Geneva, Switzerland Wilson brought the Treaty home for US Senate ratification, but the Senate failed to ratify. Why? Rapid military demobilization

53 Wilson had alienated most Republican Senators Wilson had alienated most Republican Senators

54 Wilson Seeks Ratification Isolationism Isolationism Fear of a loss of American sovereignty Fear of a loss of American sovereignty

55 Wilson Seeks Ratification Summer and fall of 1919, Wilson traveled 8,000 miles in 22 days, giving 32 major speeches. Summer and fall of 1919, Wilson traveled 8,000 miles in 22 days, giving 32 major speeches. He suffered exhaustion and finally a stroke that paralyzed the left side of his body for life. He suffered exhaustion and finally a stroke that paralyzed the left side of his body for life.

56 Wilson Seeks Ratification For six weeks, his wife, Edith, isolated the president in the White House and made decisions for him. For six weeks, his wife, Edith, isolated the president in the White House and made decisions for him.

57 Wilson Seeks Ratification November 1919, US Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. November 1919, US Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. Wilson called the presidential election of 1920 a referendum on the League of Nations. Wilson called the presidential election of 1920 a referendum on the League of Nations. So, what happened? So, what happened?

58 Presidential Election of 1920 James M. Cox (D) ( ) James M. Cox (D) ( )

59 Presidential Election of 1920 Vice Presidential running mate, Franklin D. Roosevelt ( )

60 Warren G. Harding (R) ( ) ( )


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