Presentation on theme: "The History of the Star-Spangled Banner. Britain had signed a Treaty to end the Revolution in 1783. America became a country. The British also agreed."— Presentation transcript:
Britain had signed a Treaty to end the Revolution in 1783. America became a country. The British also agreed to give up their forts and allow settlers to move west.
The British were fighting Napoleon and their vast Navy was in need of sailors. Napoleon wanted to conquer Europe. America Napoleon British forces
In order to keep their forces strong, the British began the process of impressment. Impressment is rather like kidnapping. When the British boarded an American ship, the British commanders would take the sailors with them to fight on their ships. THIS ANGERED THE AMERICANS.
The British also decided NOT to give back the forts in America. Therefore, the settlers couldn’t move west. THIS ANGERED THE AMERICANS EVEN MORE.
The British also urged the Indians to fight the Americans. They gave the Indians arms and money to fight. THIS ANGERED THE AMERICANS EVEN MORE!!!
America was a new country and many did not think it could protect itself. Shipping was very important to the early Americans. Business was dependent upon shipping to other countries. Those that were involved in sea trade, did not want to go to war against Britain. They didn’t want to see trade disrupted.
President James Madison (Little Jemmy) asked the Congress to declare war on England in 1812. Many were against the war, but Madison got Congress to sign on and the war began. Madison was a small man – about 5 ft. 4 inches and weighed about 120 pounds. He had enormous intelligence and was often underestimated by others.
WHAT were they thinking??? The American army invaded Canada, still a British colony, hoping to conquer this British territory. The Indians joined the British and the Americans were not prepared for the battle. The Americans burned the Parliament building in York (now known as Toronto) and retreated.
Meanwhile, in Europe, the British defeated Napoleon. This left the British free to concentrate on their war with America. They came in full force; the largest, most professional group of soldiers in the whole world. They sailed towards America.
To get revenge for the burning of York in Canada, the British attacked Washington, D.C.attacked Washington, D.C. Dolley ran for her life, but only after she had managed to save many important historical items, including the portrait of George Washington, velvet curtains, and important papers. Before the British burned Madison’s home, they sat down and enjoyed the dinner Dolley had prepared for her guests. Then they set fire to the President’s mansion.
Portrait of George Washington, 1799 “Our kind friend, Mr. Carroll, has come to hasten my departure, and is in a very bad humor with me because I insist on waiting until the large picture of Gen. Washington is secured, and it requires to be unscrewed from the wall. This process was found to be too tedious for these perilous moments; I have ordered the frame to be broken, and the canvas taken out; it is done – and the precious portrait placed in the hands of 2 gentlemen of New York for safekeeping.” Dolley Madison
After the destruction of Washington, the British headed for Baltimore. Baltimore was a very important port, the home of many American ships. Baltimore patriots were not going to give up their city without a fight. The British called Baltimore “The City of Pirates”.
Now, imagine the port filled with ships. Houses lined the waterfront. Baltimore was under the command of Major General Samuel Smith. Major Smith convinced the ship owners to sink their own ships in the water. This turned out to be a great plan – the British warships couldn’t come into the harbor because of the sunken vessels.
Baltimore also was home to Fort McHenry. This fort was commanded by Major George Armistead. The fort was shaped like a star, with cannons mounted at every point. It was located on Baltimore Harbor. On September 13, 1814, the British attack Fort McHenry. attack Fort McHenry.
DID YOU KNOW????????? Nearly 61 percent of Americans do not know all of the words to the Star Spangled Banner. More than 70 percent of Americans learned the Star-Spangled Banner at school during music class. Among teens, 38 percent do not know the name of our National Anthem. Less than 35 percent of teens can name the author of the National Anthem.
LET’S CHANGE THIS….. AS FEW AS 15 PERCENT OF AMERICAN YOUTH CAN SING THE WORDS TO THE ANTHEM.
O say, can you see, by the dawn’s early light. What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming!
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air. Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there: O say does that Star-Spangled Banner yet wave O’er the land of the free, and the home of the brave?
Acknowledgements http://www.bcpl.net/~etowner/anthe m.html (national anthem instrumental and flag picture)http://www.bcpl.net/~etowner/anthe m.html United Streaming (Washington video clip is 2:49; Fort McHenry video clip is 3:05) Back to Homepage