Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The World by the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance Chapter 29 (w/a lil of C28 mixed in) EQ: How did WWI cause European decline worldwide? Who challenged.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The World by the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance Chapter 29 (w/a lil of C28 mixed in) EQ: How did WWI cause European decline worldwide? Who challenged."— Presentation transcript:

1 The World by the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance Chapter 29 (w/a lil of C28 mixed in) EQ: How did WWI cause European decline worldwide? Who challenged European world dominance after WWI and Where?

2 Introduction The 1920s were profoundly shaped by WWI and worldwide independence movements (from Imperialism) that were underway before the warThe 1920s were profoundly shaped by WWI and worldwide independence movements (from Imperialism) that were underway before the war Four major patterns emerged:Four major patterns emerged: –1) Western Europe’s recovery from the war was incomplete at best –2) The US and Japan used WWI to vault them into being world superpowers –3) Nationalists movements in key European colonies distracted the already war weary European powers –4) Revolutions in countries such as Mexico, Russia and China shook the economic and political foundations of Imperialism (brief summaries, more on these next class) Each of these developments brought into doubt western Europe’s assumptions about its place as the dominant global powerEach of these developments brought into doubt western Europe’s assumptions about its place as the dominant global power

3 Western Europe’s Post War Disarray WWI quickly shattered the people’s confidence in pre-war European government, which, in the post war, were unable to deal with mounting economic, social, political and even psychological issuesWWI quickly shattered the people’s confidence in pre-war European government, which, in the post war, were unable to deal with mounting economic, social, political and even psychological issues Once grand imperial governments in Germany and Austria- Hungary collapsed to the pressureOnce grand imperial governments in Germany and Austria- Hungary collapsed to the pressure With the majority of fighting having been done over territory in Europe, several groups of people became displacedWith the majority of fighting having been done over territory in Europe, several groups of people became displaced The reality of 10 million deaths in Europe also took their tollThe reality of 10 million deaths in Europe also took their toll European governments now had NO MONEY since the failed to properly tax their citizens for war production, and debt to led to inflation and vast unemployment (precursor to depression)European governments now had NO MONEY since the failed to properly tax their citizens for war production, and debt to led to inflation and vast unemployment (precursor to depression)

4 The Roaring 20s in Europe A brief period of recovery occurred…diplomatic tensions between nations eased and several signed the Kellogg- Briand Pact of 1928, outlawing war forever between nations of Europe (pssh, yeah that really worked!)A brief period of recovery occurred…diplomatic tensions between nations eased and several signed the Kellogg- Briand Pact of 1928, outlawing war forever between nations of Europe (pssh, yeah that really worked!) Internal politics were mixed, as several leftist entities sought to emulate the Russian Revolution (Communism) in some nations, while Rightists focused on establishing authoritarian governments focused on national pride (Fascism)Internal politics were mixed, as several leftist entities sought to emulate the Russian Revolution (Communism) in some nations, while Rightists focused on establishing authoritarian governments focused on national pride (Fascism) Rampant consumerism (desire for autos, radios and other amenities) spurred economic growth in the short termRampant consumerism (desire for autos, radios and other amenities) spurred economic growth in the short term Cultural creativity in areas of film (the new medium), Cubism, writing (Realism) distracted the massesCultural creativity in areas of film (the new medium), Cubism, writing (Realism) distracted the masses Women in particular gained great rights, as nations gave them suffrage at the beginning of the decade…women also challenged Victorian norms and became crazed (drinking, smoking, etc.) while the reaction was to maintain domesticity for women as a wholeWomen in particular gained great rights, as nations gave them suffrage at the beginning of the decade…women also challenged Victorian norms and became crazed (drinking, smoking, etc.) while the reaction was to maintain domesticity for women as a whole

5 Fascism and New Nations In 1919, Benito Mussolini formed the fascio di combattimento or union for struggle…advocated a strong central state with state control over all aspects of society while emphasizing national pride…conditions in post-war Italy drove people to follow this new government (labor unrest, lack of territory, inept parliament)In 1919, Benito Mussolini formed the fascio di combattimento or union for struggle…advocated a strong central state with state control over all aspects of society while emphasizing national pride…conditions in post-war Italy drove people to follow this new government (labor unrest, lack of territory, inept parliament) Mussolini used these issues to gain support…once in power he eliminated rivals, used propaganda and speeches to spur nationalist fervor and eliminated privatizationMussolini used these issues to gain support…once in power he eliminated rivals, used propaganda and speeches to spur nationalist fervor and eliminated privatization Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, new nations were formed as a result of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary Empire…most struggled to find political stability and move beyond agriculture in the economic sectorMeanwhile, in Eastern Europe, new nations were formed as a result of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary Empire…most struggled to find political stability and move beyond agriculture in the economic sector All spurned Communism while reaching out to western nations for help (little to be had)…internal strife amongst ethnic groups coupled with agricultural price collapses during the Depression severely crippled these new nations, which became ripe for conquering by larger neighbors (Germany, Italy, Soviet Union)All spurned Communism while reaching out to western nations for help (little to be had)…internal strife amongst ethnic groups coupled with agricultural price collapses during the Depression severely crippled these new nations, which became ripe for conquering by larger neighbors (Germany, Italy, Soviet Union)

6 The Rise of the US (1920s) While settler societies in Canada and Australia became autonomous (self-sustaining) during this period, the United States moved to the forefront as the world’s major superpowerWhile settler societies in Canada and Australia became autonomous (self-sustaining) during this period, the United States moved to the forefront as the world’s major superpower Despite serious attempts to remain isolated (rejection of Versailles Treaty of WWI), the US found itself as the premiere provider of industrial consumer goods and agricultural food commodities during this period, largely due to the innovations of corporate thinkers (Ford, Carnegie, Rockefeller) and government friendly business policiesDespite serious attempts to remain isolated (rejection of Versailles Treaty of WWI), the US found itself as the premiere provider of industrial consumer goods and agricultural food commodities during this period, largely due to the innovations of corporate thinkers (Ford, Carnegie, Rockefeller) and government friendly business policies Add to this, the US took the lead in the sciences and the arts during this period, producing more of the world’s most important advances (assembly line, refrigeration, synthetic fibers, etc.) and experimenting in a variety of newer art mediums (Jazz, “talkies”, dances)Add to this, the US took the lead in the sciences and the arts during this period, producing more of the world’s most important advances (assembly line, refrigeration, synthetic fibers, etc.) and experimenting in a variety of newer art mediums (Jazz, “talkies”, dances)

7 The Japanese Empire As European imperialism waned in East Asia, Japan stepped in…fueled by zaibatsus and jingoist/militarist government policies, the Japanese economy grewAs European imperialism waned in East Asia, Japan stepped in…fueled by zaibatsus and jingoist/militarist government policies, the Japanese economy grew The Japanese industrial system converted from simple light industries (silk) to expansion in mechanical (ships, planes, cars), electric and steel industriesThe Japanese industrial system converted from simple light industries (silk) to expansion in mechanical (ships, planes, cars), electric and steel industries A better standard of living spurred huge population growth and a demand for agricultural production to increase…territorial expansion into east Asia brought relief to food supplies…the Japanese government focused on strict education programs, with universal compulsory education required through secondary school by 1925.A better standard of living spurred huge population growth and a demand for agricultural production to increase…territorial expansion into east Asia brought relief to food supplies…the Japanese government focused on strict education programs, with universal compulsory education required through secondary school by Japan did have to dodge the oncoming issues associated with the Great Depression, coupled with ongoing resistance to assimilate outside cultural beliefs (Western ideas) and rapid population growth leading to overcrowding in an already cramped spaceJapan did have to dodge the oncoming issues associated with the Great Depression, coupled with ongoing resistance to assimilate outside cultural beliefs (Western ideas) and rapid population growth leading to overcrowding in an already cramped space

8 Nationalist Challenges in India (C28) British exploitation of the Indian populace reached its peak by WWI…many saw themselves drawn into military service for the British Empire while others grew tired of subjugation under economic exploitation…early nationalist leaders such as B.G. Tilak proposed violence in response to subjugation, but Britain was able to suppress itBritish exploitation of the Indian populace reached its peak by WWI…many saw themselves drawn into military service for the British Empire while others grew tired of subjugation under economic exploitation…early nationalist leaders such as B.G. Tilak proposed violence in response to subjugation, but Britain was able to suppress it In 1919, many peaceful protests broke out across India…one at Amritsar turned into a massacre…it sparked militant nationalists in India to begin to demand greater independence from the British crown…Britain responded with reforms (Montagu-Chelmsford of 1919) which gave Indian legislators greater administrative power…However, Britain also passed the Rowlatt Act which severely limited civil rightsIn 1919, many peaceful protests broke out across India…one at Amritsar turned into a massacre…it sparked militant nationalists in India to begin to demand greater independence from the British crown…Britain responded with reforms (Montagu-Chelmsford of 1919) which gave Indian legislators greater administrative power…However, Britain also passed the Rowlatt Act which severely limited civil rights Mohandas Gandhi emerged as the new Nationalist leader in the 1920s…he promoted Hindu beliefs at the center of his movement (ahimsa, satyagraha)…he proposed that the way to weaken British control was through non- violent civil disobedience, refuse to support the imperialist machineMohandas Gandhi emerged as the new Nationalist leader in the 1920s…he promoted Hindu beliefs at the center of his movement (ahimsa, satyagraha)…he proposed that the way to weaken British control was through non- violent civil disobedience, refuse to support the imperialist machine

9 Middle Eastern Nationalism (C28) The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire as a result of WWI led to a question of how Middle Eastern territory should be handled…many societies in the region looked to Europe to help rebuild and restructure while other maintained self-sufficiencyThe dissolution of the Ottoman Empire as a result of WWI led to a question of how Middle Eastern territory should be handled…many societies in the region looked to Europe to help rebuild and restructure while other maintained self-sufficiency In Turkey, the skilled military leader Mustafa Kemal (aka Ataturk) successfully defended imperialist territorial expansions from Italy and Greece to establish a modern Turkish republic on Asia MinorIn Turkey, the skilled military leader Mustafa Kemal (aka Ataturk) successfully defended imperialist territorial expansions from Italy and Greece to establish a modern Turkish republic on Asia Minor Meanwhile, sheiks/sharifs in Damascus, Beruit and Baghdad looked to Europeans to solve their territorial issues…post WWI military occupation led to the creation of artificial borders which were drawn by Europeans through several mandates, angering several ME leaders to no availMeanwhile, sheiks/sharifs in Damascus, Beruit and Baghdad looked to Europeans to solve their territorial issues…post WWI military occupation led to the creation of artificial borders which were drawn by Europeans through several mandates, angering several ME leaders to no avail The greatest issue surrounded Palestine…Zionists sought a Jewish state in Palestine for Jews being expelled from Europe (pogroms)…European powers pledged this state through the Balfour Declaration, which was vehemently opposed by all Arabs…nonetheless, as long as Europe continued to directly occupy the Middle East in the 1930s and 1940s, Jews flooded into their new homelandThe greatest issue surrounded Palestine…Zionists sought a Jewish state in Palestine for Jews being expelled from Europe (pogroms)…European powers pledged this state through the Balfour Declaration, which was vehemently opposed by all Arabs…nonetheless, as long as Europe continued to directly occupy the Middle East in the 1930s and 1940s, Jews flooded into their new homeland

10 Egyptian Nationalism (C28) Egypt’s nationalist movement was unique because it preceded European domination…remember, Egypt revolted against Ottoman rule (C26) in the late 19 th C, prompting Britain to intervene and occupyEgypt’s nationalist movement was unique because it preceded European domination…remember, Egypt revolted against Ottoman rule (C26) in the late 19 th C, prompting Britain to intervene and occupy Britain basically replaced the Ottomans as masters of Egypt…decades of occupation led to violence (Dinshawai incident of 1906)Britain basically replaced the Ottomans as masters of Egypt…decades of occupation led to violence (Dinshawai incident of 1906) In 1913, the British were pressured into creating a constitution for Egypt, however, representation was limited to men of wealth (i.e. those in collusion with Britain)In 1913, the British were pressured into creating a constitution for Egypt, however, representation was limited to men of wealth (i.e. those in collusion with Britain) WWI took a heavy toll on the Egyptian people as Britain declared martial law in Egypt while focusing its entire attention on protecting the Suez Canal from foreign takeover…add to this, food supplies in Egypt were drained mostly by Britain’s military force, leading to widespread food shortages/starvationWWI took a heavy toll on the Egyptian people as Britain declared martial law in Egypt while focusing its entire attention on protecting the Suez Canal from foreign takeover…add to this, food supplies in Egypt were drained mostly by Britain’s military force, leading to widespread food shortages/starvation Egypt was now ripe for revolt, and in 1919, it happened…Egyptian delegates were denied right to represent their case for self-determination at the Versailles peace conference and they called for public protest…students and women (yes, women) led the demonstrations and a new party, the Wafd came to power during the rebellionEgypt was now ripe for revolt, and in 1919, it happened…Egyptian delegates were denied right to represent their case for self-determination at the Versailles peace conference and they called for public protest…students and women (yes, women) led the demonstrations and a new party, the Wafd came to power during the rebellion Britain began a slow withdraw in stages by 1922, eventually remaining only to protect the canal by 1936…HOWEVER, despite the loss of direct occupation by Britain, the new Wafd party did little to improve Egypt over the next few decades, as widespread corruption and collusion with British interests continued…most of Egypt’s farmland was still in the hands of less than 6% of the population…it will not be until 1952 when sweeping reforms were brought in by socialist leader Gamal Abdul NasserBritain began a slow withdraw in stages by 1922, eventually remaining only to protect the canal by 1936…HOWEVER, despite the loss of direct occupation by Britain, the new Wafd party did little to improve Egypt over the next few decades, as widespread corruption and collusion with British interests continued…most of Egypt’s farmland was still in the hands of less than 6% of the population…it will not be until 1952 when sweeping reforms were brought in by socialist leader Gamal Abdul Nasser

11 African Nationalism (C28) Likewise with India and Egypt, in Africa, the educated elite and traditional rulers are in cahoots with European imperialists…WWI saw both conflict in Africa (as allies removed Italy and Germany from possessions) as well as raw material and military labor exploitation throughout the continentLikewise with India and Egypt, in Africa, the educated elite and traditional rulers are in cahoots with European imperialists…WWI saw both conflict in Africa (as allies removed Italy and Germany from possessions) as well as raw material and military labor exploitation throughout the continent Continued promises of better living conditions and better employment for Africans went unmet, with several members of the elite breaking away from European collusion…widespread strikes and protest broke out in Africa in the 1920sContinued promises of better living conditions and better employment for Africans went unmet, with several members of the elite breaking away from European collusion…widespread strikes and protest broke out in Africa in the 1920s Outside forces from the US (WEB DuBois and Marcus Garvey) led pan-African movements from America, attempting to get many former slave families to return to Africa to reclaim their heritage…in French West Africa, the negritude movement sparked conflict regarding racial/social stereotypes in Africa…it reminded Africans that once upon a time Africa was ruled by societies that promoted greater equality (for women especially), where all citizens were cared for, etc. (well, forget the fact that there was slavery)Outside forces from the US (WEB DuBois and Marcus Garvey) led pan-African movements from America, attempting to get many former slave families to return to Africa to reclaim their heritage…in French West Africa, the negritude movement sparked conflict regarding racial/social stereotypes in Africa…it reminded Africans that once upon a time Africa was ruled by societies that promoted greater equality (for women especially), where all citizens were cared for, etc. (well, forget the fact that there was slavery) In response to pressures, colonial powers did give greater autonomy to newly formed nationalist governments in some areas (not settler areas like Kenya or Rhodesia)…however, it would not be until after WWII that African independence efforts were kicked into full gear.In response to pressures, colonial powers did give greater autonomy to newly formed nationalist governments in some areas (not settler areas like Kenya or Rhodesia)…however, it would not be until after WWII that African independence efforts were kicked into full gear.

12 Mexican Revolution: A Summary Liberals (like Francisco Madero) demanded political and land reform from the Diaz regime (who refused changed)…several characters (Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa, Victoriano Huerta and Alvaro Obregon) took it upon themselves to raise armies to replace the Diaz regimeLiberals (like Francisco Madero) demanded political and land reform from the Diaz regime (who refused changed)…several characters (Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa, Victoriano Huerta and Alvaro Obregon) took it upon themselves to raise armies to replace the Diaz regime Obregon was the eventual winner…a constitution in 1917 promised land reform (but did not happen fast enough) and greater education (more of a success)Obregon was the eventual winner…a constitution in 1917 promised land reform (but did not happen fast enough) and greater education (more of a success) Mexico post-revolution experienced nationalism and “indigenism”, as natives and mestizos demanded more…Marxism also had some impacts demanding secularism…conservative Catholics launched the Cristeros movement to retain their power in MexicoMexico post-revolution experienced nationalism and “indigenism”, as natives and mestizos demanded more…Marxism also had some impacts demanding secularism…conservative Catholics launched the Cristeros movement to retain their power in Mexico By the 1930s, a political party known as the PRI (Party of the Institutionalized Revolution) took control…though Mexico was now a multiparty democracy, the PRI dominated Mexico with caudillo-like rule until the 21 st centuryBy the 1930s, a political party known as the PRI (Party of the Institutionalized Revolution) took control…though Mexico was now a multiparty democracy, the PRI dominated Mexico with caudillo-like rule until the 21 st century

13 Russian Revolution: A Summary Failures by the czarist leadership to defend Russia in WWI coupled with famines and worker unrest caused the revolution…a newly developed council of workers called the soviet demanded the dissolution of the czarist regime and the institution of democratic rule…this happened, but for a short time under Alexander Kerensky (February 1917)Failures by the czarist leadership to defend Russia in WWI coupled with famines and worker unrest caused the revolution…a newly developed council of workers called the soviet demanded the dissolution of the czarist regime and the institution of democratic rule…this happened, but for a short time under Alexander Kerensky (February 1917) In October 1917, another revolt occurred expelling Kerensky’s liberals and installing Lenin’s Bolsheviks to powerIn October 1917, another revolt occurred expelling Kerensky’s liberals and installing Lenin’s Bolsheviks to power An internal civil war raged between RED (Communist) and WHITE (liberal and czarist) factions from , with the Communist REDS winningAn internal civil war raged between RED (Communist) and WHITE (liberal and czarist) factions from , with the Communist REDS winning Lenin set out the develop the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) by developing a New Economic Policy based on 5 year plans and state control and creating the Supreme Soviet based on one party, but still elected.Lenin set out the develop the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) by developing a New Economic Policy based on 5 year plans and state control and creating the Supreme Soviet based on one party, but still elected.

14 Chinese Revolution: A Summary In 1912, the abdication of the last Chinese emperor Puyi set the stage for the early battle for China between Democratic factions (Sun Yat-Sen) and warlord factions (Yuan Shikai) as well as the constant fear of invasion from JapanIn 1912, the abdication of the last Chinese emperor Puyi set the stage for the early battle for China between Democratic factions (Sun Yat-Sen) and warlord factions (Yuan Shikai) as well as the constant fear of invasion from Japan Increased Japanese encroachment led to the May Fourth Movement, demanding reform and a decrease in foreign involvement and greater democratization…warlords would not budge and foreign involvement increased…as a result, some educated students (like Mao Zedong) turned to CommunismIncreased Japanese encroachment led to the May Fourth Movement, demanding reform and a decrease in foreign involvement and greater democratization…warlords would not budge and foreign involvement increased…as a result, some educated students (like Mao Zedong) turned to Communism Sun Yatsen’s Guomindang (Democratic National Party) seized power from the warlords in the 1920s and under the leadership of Sun’s successor, Chiang Kai Shek, aligned with the Communists, then turned on them, seeking their destruction by the end of the decadeSun Yatsen’s Guomindang (Democratic National Party) seized power from the warlords in the 1920s and under the leadership of Sun’s successor, Chiang Kai Shek, aligned with the Communists, then turned on them, seeking their destruction by the end of the decade Mao knew that the only way to gain control of China and to solve the problems of the nation was to make promises to the peasants…when Mao was escaping persecution from the Chiang’s force on the Long March, he made sure to preach Communist ideology to the peasantsMao knew that the only way to gain control of China and to solve the problems of the nation was to make promises to the peasants…when Mao was escaping persecution from the Chiang’s force on the Long March, he made sure to preach Communist ideology to the peasants In the end, the Guomindang and the Communists had to once again join force to fight the invading Japanese in the 1930s and early 1940s…only to go right back at each other’s throats once World War II was over.In the end, the Guomindang and the Communists had to once again join force to fight the invading Japanese in the 1930s and early 1940s…only to go right back at each other’s throats once World War II was over.

15 This week… #4 will be answered…#4 will be answered… –Tuesday and Wednesday: Activity on Revolutions in C29 Thursday: I/O on Themes of early 20 th C revolution…read articles for prep AND answer the questions!Thursday: I/O on Themes of early 20 th C revolution…read articles for prep AND answer the questions! Friday: Test on C29, Notes DueFriday: Test on C29, Notes Due –NOTE: You will need to go back over C28 pages …MC questions will be on this week’s test fromm that material!

16

17 Revolutions of the 20 th Century Assignment…compare and contrast the causes, themes/methods and overall impacts (PERSIA) of TWO 20th Century Revolutions.Assignment…compare and contrast the causes, themes/methods and overall impacts (PERSIA) of TWO 20th Century Revolutions. IF YOU WERE BORN IN JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH, APRIL, MAY, JUNE OR JULY (7 People)…IF YOU WERE BORN IN JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH, APRIL, MAY, JUNE OR JULY (7 People)… –Compare and Contrast the Mexican and Russian Revolutions IF YOU WERE BORN IN AUGUST, SEPTEMBER OR OCTOBER (8 People)…IF YOU WERE BORN IN AUGUST, SEPTEMBER OR OCTOBER (8 People)… –Compare and Contrast the Mexican and Chinese Revolutions IF YOU WERE BORN IN NOVEMBER OR DECEMBER (5 People)…IF YOU WERE BORN IN NOVEMBER OR DECEMBER (5 People)… –Compare and Contrast the Chinese and Russian Revolutions


Download ppt "The World by the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance Chapter 29 (w/a lil of C28 mixed in) EQ: How did WWI cause European decline worldwide? Who challenged."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google