Presentation on theme: "Charles Darwin (1809-82) A brief biography By Gabriel Tordjman (F2014)"— Presentation transcript:
Charles Darwin (1809-82) A brief biography By Gabriel Tordjman (F2014)
Darwin was born in the little town of Shrewsbury, England, 12 February 1809. Here he is at the age of 7. As you can see, he was interested in plants (and animals) from the youngest age. Early Years
His grandfather, Erasmus Darwin had already speculated about evolution His father, Robert Darwin, was a doctor and his mother Susannah died when he was 8. Early Years
At first Charles pursued medical studies at Edinburgh, Scotland but he found it boring and gruesome. He could not stand the sight of blood. His father then signed him up at Cambridge for a Bachelor’s program in preparation for a career as a parson. http://springwoodgcsehistory.blogspot.ca/2010/08/nineteenth-century-surgery.html
Early Years Christ’s College Cambridge where Darwin studied for a few years. He spent much of the time learning about natural history and natural theology.
Early Years Suddenly, Darwin was offered a 5 year trip around the world to be the naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle.Suddenly, Darwin was offered a 5 year trip around the world to be the naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle. After friends convinced his father, he began the epic trip that would change the world in 1831.After friends convinced his father, he began the epic trip that would change the world in 1831. HMS Beagle in the Straits of Magellan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Be agle#mediaviewer/File:PSM_V57_D 097_Hms_beagle_in_the_straits_of _magellan.png
The Voyage of The Beagle Captain Robert Fitzroy, RN (1805- 65) of the HMS Beagle. He accepted Darwin as naturalist on board the ship and gave him a copy of Lyell’s Principles of Geology but was bitterly depressed and felt guilty after Darwin published Origin in 1859. In 1865 he committed suicide, leaving a wife and two children.
The Voyage of The Beagle The HMS Beagle entering Tierra del Fuego
Voyage of The Beagle Some of the natives of Tierra del Fuego (southern tip of South America) Captain Fitzroy had encountered on his first voyage to South America. Darwin was shocked at the “primitiveness” of the people. (Contrast this to A.R. Wallace’s admiration of the natives of Brazil). Fitzroy had some brought back to “civilize” and “Christianize” them. http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Fuegians.jpg
The Voyage of The Beagle Darwin approaching Charles Island, Galapagos (above). Various shell shapes of tortoises on various Galapagos Islands lead Darwin to natural selection theory (amongst other evidence). Prints by Simon Gurr https://simongurr.wordpress.co m/category/comics/page/6/
Discovering Evolution Notes from one of Darwin’s Notebooks during Beagle voyage and his first evolutionary tree.Notice the “I think” at the top. Darwin saw that big geological changes had occurred and realized species had to change to match this change in environment.
Discovering Evolution Upon his return in 1836, he was a confirmed evolutionist but was still searching to find the answer to the crucial question of how evolution happens.
Darwin Naturally Selects Emma Meanwhile, he meets Emma Wedgwood and naturally selects her as a possible wife. Like the scientist he is, Darwin writes out the pros and cons of marrying. Eugene Byrne and Simon Gurr, Darwin: A Graphic Novel. Retrieved from: http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2013/02/12/darwin- graphic-biography-smithsonian/
Darwin Naturally Selects Emma Darwin’s wife, (and first cousin) Emma Wedgewood. She was a devout Christian. Darwin was frank about his ideas on “transmutation” to her. Despite this and her concern that they would be separated in the afterlife, she accepted his proposal. They married in 1839.
Darwin Naturally Selects Emma Down House not far from London where Emma and Charles settle down after a brief time in London.
Darwin Naturally Selects Emma Darwin’s study at Down House. He conducted numerous experiments in the gardens and greenhouse and wrote many of his works here.
Discovering Natural Selection Already famous for his trip and his book on it, Darwin continued his search for a how of evolution and came upon Malthus’ book, On Population: In October 1838…I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long- continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work... (Darwin, Autobiography)
Discovering Natural Selection As he, says, he finally had a theory to explain how evolution is possible. But he hesitated to publish. He wanted to compile huge amounts of evidence and perhaps was concerned about the reaction his theory would provoke (including on Emma). However….
Discovering Natural Selection Alfred Russell Wallace (1823- 1913) developed the exact same theory as Darwin and prompted Darwin to publish his Origin of Species sooner than he would have liked (1859).
Impact of Origin The theory created a storm of controversy. This cartoon claims Darwin is saying we are not much more than “worms”.
Impact of Origin Darwin’s “bulldog”, T.H. Huxley, took on opponents of evolution head on for the more timid Darwin. “Try to learn something about everything and everything about something”
Impact of Origin Huxley vs. “Soapy Sam” Wilberforce Print by Simon Gurr http://unbound.co.uk/books/the- dissent-of-man/updates/prints- of-simon-gurr-s-illustrations At a famous meeting at Oxford, Wilberforce asks Huxley if he is descended from an ape from his mother or father’s side. Huxley answers he would rather be a descendant of an ape than someone who injects ridicule into such a serious topic.
Darwin in his 40s Charles and his son Leonard Darwin
Annie Darwin, one of Darwin’s daughters, died at the age of 10 Darwin was devastated by her death. This may have been one reason for the loss of his Christian faith (two other of Darwin’s children died before the age of 3)
Darwin’s Death Darwin died in 1882, lauded as one of the greatest scientists in history, even if not all accepted his theory. He was buried at Westminster Abbey, the famous Church where Britain’s most famous lie.
Some of Charles Darwin’s works 1829–1832. [Records of captured insects, in] Stephens, J. F., Illustrations of British entomology Stephens, J. F.  1835: Extracts from letters to Professor Henslow 1836: A LETTER, Containing Remarks on the Moral State of TAHITI, NEW ZEALAND, &c. – BY CAPT. R. FITZROY AND C. DARWIN, ESQ. OF H.M.S. 'Beagle.'   1838-43: Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle: published between 1839 and 1843 in five Parts (and nineteen numbers) by various authors, edited and superintended by Charles Darwin, who contributed sections to two of the Parts: 1838: Part 1 No. 1 Fossil Mammalia, by Richard Owen (Preface and Geological introduction by Darwin) 1838: Part 2 No. 1 Mammalia, by George R. Waterhouse (Geographical introduction and A notice of their habits and ranges by Darwin)Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. BeagleRichard OwenGeorge R. Waterhouse 1839: Journal and Remarks (The Voyage of the Beagle)The Voyage of the Beagle 1842: The Structure and Distribution of Coral ReefsThe Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs 1844: Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands visited during the voyage of H.M.S. BeagleGeological Observations on the Volcanic Islands visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle 1846: Geological Observations on South AmericaGeological Observations on South America 1849: Geology from A Manual of scientific enquiry; prepared for the use of Her Majesty's Navy: and adapted for travellers in general., John F.W. Herschel ed.John F.W. Herschel 1851: A Monograph of the Sub-class Cirripedia, with Figures of all the Species. The Lepadidae; or, Pedunculated Cirripedes. 1851: A Monograph on the Fossil Lepadidae, or, Pedunculated Cirripedes of Great Britain 1854: A Monograph of the Sub-class Cirripedia, with Figures of all the Species. The Balanidae (or Sessile Cirripedes); the Verrucidae, etc. 1854: A Monograph on the Fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ of Great Britain 1858: On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection (Extract from an unpublished Work on Species)On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection 1859: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for LifeOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life 1862: On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insectsOn the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects 1865: The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants (Linnean Society paper, published in book form in 1875)The Movements and Habits of Climbing PlantsLinnean Society 1868: The Variation of Animals and Plants under DomesticationThe Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication 1871: The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexThe Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex 1872: The Expression of Emotions in Man and AnimalsThe Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals 1875: Insectivorous PlantsInsectivorous Plants 1876: The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable KingdomThe Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom 1877: The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same SpeciesThe Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species 1879: "Preface and 'a preliminary notice'" in Ernst Krause's Erasmus DarwinErnst Krause 1880: The Power of Movement in PlantsThe Power of Movement in Plants 1881: The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of WormsThe Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms 1887: Autobiography of Charles Darwin (Edited by his son Francis Darwin)Autobiography of Charles DarwinFrancis Darwin 1958: Autobiography of Charles Darwin (Barlow, unexpurgated) “ Charles Darwin bibliography” Wikipedia. Accessed: 30 July, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin_bibliography