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Water and Sanitation MDGs: Status, achievements & missing links.

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Presentation on theme: "Water and Sanitation MDGs: Status, achievements & missing links."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water and Sanitation MDGs: Status, achievements & missing links

2 The Big Picture  335 million Africans still without improved water, 498 million without sanitation  To meet MDGs, nos. served should double, to 700 million by 2015  Even then, 200 million would remain unserved  While Northern Africa (NA) is on track for both water and sanitation MDGs, sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) is off track for both.

3 Uneven & inequitable progress  Worse in rural areas: in SSA 51% of rural population without water, 47% without sanitation  Majority of target group is poor; women and girls bear most of costs  Sanitation much worse than water: a neglected, unspoken crisis – but mainly an on-site, domestic issue  Big country variations: in some, coverage actually declining, many others need to double or treble rate of increase

4 Financial costs of achieving MDGs  In SSA, annual investment costs 2005-2014 USD 4.55 billion (WHO)  Three-quarters of this is sanitation  Inclusion of recurrent costs (O&M etc) would raise total to USD 9.41 billion  Cost depends on choices: level of service, technology, location of target group

5 Service performance  100% continuity of service very rare  Other key indicators – collections, staffing ratios, water losses etc – are unsatisfactory  Many utilities don’t recover full operating costs, most don’t fund adequate maintenance.  Much existing infrastructure deteriorating

6 Environmental sustainability  Many existing water sources unsuitable or unhealthy  Access to improved, well planned, source could relieve local environmental stress  But extending coverage to large populations could aggravate pressure on water resources  Drilling new wells could leave existing wells high and dry  In some regions MDGs entail use of contaminated groundwater  However, existing sanitation practices polluting and a health hazard

7 Beyond 2015  Accomplishment of MDGs would still leave 200 million Africans unserved  African Water Vision 2025: a glimpse of the ideal  Meanwhile, a difficult period after 2015 – “low hanging fruit” already picked, least privileged populations remaining  Choices to be made between universal coverage to basic level, and higher standards for some

8 Rural W&S: a case apart?  Logistics of getting finance & materials to outlying regions: “turning money into water”;  High rate of breakdown & non-functionality  Overlap between domestic & agro water use  The gender dimension  Sanitation: organisation & finance a household affair, with community pressure  RWSSI target: 66% rural access to W&S by 2010, 80% by 2015

9 MDG progress: success factors  Governments “own” and drive reforms  Links between water, sanitation, poverty & growth understood & reflected in policy  Civil society bodies are effective advocates & involved in policymaking  Active reforms of water sector undertaken  Decentralisation of responsibility is “bedded in” and working  Ministerial responsibilities clear, coordinated & functional

10 MDGs: reasons for lack of progress  External agents the main drivers of change  NGO activities off-budget & weakly coordinated  Poor understanding of wider linkages of W&S, weak implementation capacity  Urban bias & neglect of rural areas  Sanitation & hygiene neglected & lagging  Uncoordinated & unclear Ministerial responsibilities  Water utilities unreformed

11 Missing links: 1. Political leadership & country ownership  Clear identification of ministerial responsibilities & champions of W&S  Make full use of evidence of watsan benefits for advocacy  Target key decision makers outside water world (e.g. Finance)  Role for AMCOW in peer group influence (plus sanitation ministers)

12 Missing links 2: connect W&S with hygiene, health & poverty  Watsan is central to anti-poverty strategies  Get W&S into PRSPs  Target medical profession & Ministries of Health for dialogue & cooperation

13 Missing links 3: Knowledge & analytical gaps  Differentiation of MDG target groups: more detailed mapping  Scenarios for MDG implementation: scope & impact of choices over target group, level of service, hardware  What works, where: pooling of experience of governments, agencies, NGOs, esp. in fragile states & conflicts  Planning for post-2015

14 Missing links 4: Financial gaps  Larger national budgets & higher external aid – yes, but first improve channels to enable better use of existing flows  Promote funding for sub-sovereign & decentralised agencies, where service responsibilities lie  Tap into local sources of funds with financial innovation & risk sharing  Greater cost recovery from users  ODA should be more “fit for purpose” (e.g. use of common modalities)  Adequate funding for governance and IWRM

15 Missing links 5: engagement of other actors  Public utilities: weak capacity to expand services: need “rules of engagement” & reform agenda  Local business (informal & small/medium scale) to be recognised & involved  Framework for foreign operators? Clarity of policy, regulation, pro-poor contract clauses  NGOs in policy & administrative vacuum: more involvement required

16 Missing links 6: users & general public  Providers not fully accountable to present, or missing, customers: more demand- responsiveness, transparency & social accountability needed  In sanitation, more understanding & promotion of demand: subsidies to be targeted & sparingly used  Policy space for variety, innovation & competition in delivery models: use of Global Fund for Sanitation, challenge funds, etc.

17 Finally…  Africa as a whole off-track for the MDGs  Though some concrete progress and many positive achievements  But no Silver Bullets or Quick Fixes  A challenging agenda ahead  But forces of momentum and synergy will kick in once changes start

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