Presentation on theme: "6.2 Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation. Washington is in his first term and meanwhile…. Trouble is brewing in Europe and the United States just can’t."— Presentation transcript:
6.2 Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation
Washington is in his first term and meanwhile…. Trouble is brewing in Europe and the United States just can’t avoid it.
America and Europe in 1793 Britain “hated” former enemy biggest trading partner lots of ties with the British the established, successful form of go’vt (one we should copy?) we signed a treaty with them and owe them money but they are still in the U.S. up around the Great Lakes region. France experiencing Fr. Revolution for rule by the people they seem to be excessive they did help the U.S. out with money in American Revolution we have a treaty/agreement with them. We support them like they supported us.
A revolution for the republic. July 14, 1789 a mob storms the Bastille prisoners. A revolution like the American Revolution. Inspired by the ideal of a republican rule Most Americans support the French Revolution. French and American alliance in the American revolution is remembered (remember Lafeyette & Von Stueben?) Becomes THE foreign relations issue of the time. Where will George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Alexander Hamilton stand? The French Revolution of 1789
Louis XVI Marie Antionette The Rulers of France Let them eat cake
The French Revolution Began with storming of Bastille prison July 14, National Assembly (new legislature) created: Declaration of Rights of Man written (like the Declaration of Independence) Based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Monarchy removed. By 1793 the radical Jacobites have seized power in France. The reign of terror begins Jacobites even declare war on that other major monarchy – Great Britain. Soon Directory (executive branch) turns to new general to help. Napoleon. By 1800 Napoleon is the dictator of France.
Washington declares official American Neutrality Americans divided on party lines Democrat-Republicans under Jefferson Support France not England Federalist such as Hamilton support the British John Adams Part 5 Adams and Jefferson views on Fr
Edmund Genet The Genet Affair He doesn’t obey diplomatic procedure but instead starts recruiting Americans in the pubs He didn’t even check in with the President George Washington Washington demands he be sent home Genet’s backers in France have fallen out of power (they don’t want him) Genet stays in the U.S. and becomes citizen Federalists call Jefferson a radical because he supports France – though Jefferson didn’t support Genet Jefferson finally resigns cabinet position in 1793 Young French diplomat sent to win American support John Adams Pt 5 31:40-36:51 Genet and Jefferson resigns
French Revolution Britain and France engaged in war American neutrality declared “Citizen Genet” British impressment of sailors Jay’s Treaty Foreign Troubles differences on Britain v France John Adams Pt 5 26: :20 Washington and Adams discuss foreign policy with Br and with Fr - teeth
John Jay's Treaty Relations with Britain, still smarting from the loss of her colonies, worsened in the early 1790s. From the American perspective, issues included seizure from American ships of cargoes unrelated to war, impressment of American seamen impressment and continuing British occupation of western posts within U.S. borders.
In 1794, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay was dispatched to England to seek solutions.John Jay The resulting agreement stirred up heated passions within the cabinet with Hamilton supporting the agreement and Jefferson opposing it. Key provisions included: 1.The withdrawal of British troops from posts in the American West 2.A commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues b/w the U.S. and Canada 3.A commission to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence.
Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen. George Washington as a traitor! John Adams Pt 5 45: :29 Jay’s Treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty U.S. wants to claim those lands west of the Appalachian Mts and gain shipping rights to the Mississippi River Need an agreement with Spain which holds those rights in vast area of Louisiana Territory and Florida Spain was ally to France and feared if they signed over the land the British would retaliate. Maybe the U.S. and Britain would team up on Spain?
Spain meets U.S. minister to Britain – Mr. Thomas Pinckney 1795 Treaty of San Lorenzo meant Spain gave to the U.S. all lands east of the Mississippi River (except Florida) and set the 31st parallel as the southern boundary of the U.S. Spain will open up Mississippi River traffic and allow U.S. to use port of New Orleans Pinckney’s Treaty
Domestic Disturbances 1783 Treaty of Paris never mentioned the Native Americans The Native Americans want their tribal lands British still in forts along the rich Ohio Valley Americans want to move west into those rich farmlands past the Appalachian Mountains
Little Turtle British still hanging out in forts along Great Lakes and Ohio Valley Indians ally with British who encourage Indians to resist the Americans Little Turtle’s troops are called the Miami Confederacy They brilliantly defeat Americans at the Battle of Mississinewa Here the Indians fight Gen. Arthur St. Clair. In 3 hours the Miami Confederacy kill 900 American soldiers Little Turtle will begin to practice negotiations rather than fight battles. For this, he will lose his people’s faith
Battle of Fallen Timbers 1792 General Mad Anthony Wayne develops a strong fighting force. Little Turtle accepts him Battle of Fallen Timbers (near present day Toledo, Ohio) b/w Miami Conf. & Gen. Wayne Gen. Wayne destroys the Indians and destroys the forest Gen. Wayne marches past British fort to build an American outpost
Despite later attempts by Native Americans under Tecumseh of the Shawnee to halt white encroachment, the loss at Fallen Timbers and the ensuing Treaty of Greenville (1795) opened the lands of the Northwest Territory to white settlement and initiated the closing of them to Native Americans. Tecumseh Tecumseh (Shooting Star) of the Shawnee
Meanwhile, George Washington decides to not run again. He will not be a “king.” In his farewell address he warns the U.S. to steer clear of permanent alliances with other nations. But, who will be the next president?
The Election of 1796 Federalist nominate John Adams & Thomas Pinckney Democratic-Repulicans nominate Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr
Dangers of Parties and Sectionalism Constitution said runner up becomes vice- president Here you would have Federalist President & Democratic-Republican vice-president All Southern electors voted for Jefferson & all Northern voters went for Adams T. Jefferson T. Pinckney John Adams Pt 5 election of John Adams...54:00- 60:00 not so pretty now!
How did political parties affect the results of the election of 1796?
Meanwhile, in France French don’t like Jay’s treaty with Britain and they start to seize American sailors / ships at sea President Adams sends 3 men to France to negotiate a solution. They plan to meet Fr. Foreign minister Talleyrand They arrive and are met by 3 low level official who Adams calls “X,Y, and Z” who demand a $250,000 bribe to meet Talleyrand This insult becomes known as the XYZ Affair and creates a big anti-French feeling at home 1798 Congress authorizes 1 st American Navy and though no official war, there are 2 years of shenanigans at sea
“Millions for defense but not one penny for tribute”
Alien and Sedition Acts Anti French feeling turns into anti- immigrant suspicions Most immigrants active in Democratic Republican Party Federalist push Alien & Sedition Acts through Congress Alien Act –Residence requirement now 14 years! –President can jail or deport any undesirable immigrant Sedition Act –Jail for anyone interfering or uttering falsehoods about the gov’t Lots of jail time for the Democratic Republicans courtesy of the Federalist
What about our 1 st Amendment rights? Thomas Jefferson & James Madison (the Democratic-Republicans) saw this as THE PROOF of federal gov’t abusing individual rights Of course, they go to the States!
The Virginia Kentucky Resolution States have the right to null and void any act of Congress they think is unconstitutional Principal of Nullification This resolution says any federal law not listed in Constitution can be declared null by the states No other states adopted this resolution and it died out But be warned – this issue of states vs. federal will continue
The first political parties developed at the time of George Washington. What was the KEY issue that caused this? a.The ratification of the Constitution b. declaring independence from England c. freeing the slaves d. creating a national bank
Connection #2 Why might a new government react to criticism more harshly than a well-established government?
In order to help establish a strong economy, print paper money and serve as a deposit for national revenue, what did Hamilton want to create? a. A national bank b. A federal reserve c. A Supreme Court d. the federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Connection #3 Why were the Federalists suspicious of new immigrants after the XYZ Affair?
Which of the following was a belief of the Federalist Party? a. they favored an economy based on farming b. they had faith in the common people, especially farmers and did not trust special privilege or business c. they believed in the strict construction of the Constitution d. they favored a strong nat’l gov’t with higher tariffs to protect American manufacturing