2Washington is in his first term and meanwhile….Trouble is brewing in Europeand the United States justcan’t avoid it.
3America and Europe in 1793 Britain “hated” former enemy biggest trading partnerlots of ties with the Britishthe established, successful form of go’vt (one we should copy?)we signed a treaty with them and owe them money but they are still in the U.S. up around the Great Lakes region.Franceexperiencing Fr. Revolution for rule by the peoplethey seem to be excessivethey did help the U.S. out with money in American Revolutionwe have a treaty/agreement with them. We support them like they supported us.
4The French Revolution of 1789 A revolution for the republic.July 14, 1789 a mob storms the Bastille prisoners.A revolution like the American Revolution.Inspired by the ideal of a republican ruleMost Americans support the French Revolution.French and American alliance in the Americanrevolution is remembered (remember Lafeyette &Von Stueben?)Becomes THE foreign relations issue of the time.Where will George Washington, Thomas Jefferson,and Alexander Hamilton stand?
5The Rulers of FranceLouis XVIMarie AntionetteLet themeat cake
6The French RevolutionBegan with storming of Bastille prison July 14, 1789.National Assembly (new legislature) created: Declaration of Rights of Man written (like the Declaration of Independence)Based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights.Monarchy removed.By 1793 the radical Jacobites have seized power in France. The reign of terror beginsJacobites even declare war onthat other major monarchy –Great Britain.Soon Directory (executive branch) turns to new general to help. Napoleon.By 1800 Napoleon is the dictator of France.
7John Adams Part 5 Adams and Jefferson views on Fr Revolution @19:00 Americans divided on party linesDemocrat-Republicansunder JeffersonSupport France not EnglandFederalist such as Hamiltonsupport the BritishWashington declares official American NeutralityJohn Adams Part 5 Adams and Jefferson views on Fr
8Young French diplomat sent to win American support Edmund GenetThe Genet AffairYoung French diplomat sent to win American supportHe doesn’t obey diplomatic procedure but insteadstarts recruiting Americans in the pubsHe didn’t even check in with the President GeorgeWashingtonWashington demands he be sent homeGenet’s backers in France have fallen out of power (theydon’t want him)Genet stays in the U.S. and becomes citizenFederalists call Jefferson a radical because he supportsFrance – though Jefferson didn’t support GenetJefferson finally resigns cabinet position in 1793John Adams Pt 5 31:40-36:51 Genet and Jefferson resigns
9Foreign Troubles French Revolution Britain and France engaged in war American neutrality declared“Citizen Genet”British impressment of sailorsJay’s Treatydifferences on Britain v France John Adams Pt 5 26: :20Washington and Adams discuss foreign policy with Br and with Fr - teeth
10John Jay's TreatyRelations with Britain, still smarting from the loss of her colonies, worsened in the early 1790s. From the American perspective, issues included seizure from American ships of cargoes unrelated to war, impressment of American seamenandcontinuing British occupation of western posts within U.S. borders.
11In 1794, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay was dispatched to England to seek solutions. The resulting agreement stirred up heated passions within the cabinet with Hamilton supporting the agreement and Jefferson opposing it. Key provisions included:The withdrawal of British troops from posts in the American WestA commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues b/w the U.S. and CanadaA commission to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence.
12George Washington as a traitor! Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen.George Washington as a traitor!John Adams Pt 5 45: :29 Jay’s Treaty
13Pinckney’s TreatyU.S. wants to claim those lands west of the Appalachian Mts and gain shipping rights to the Mississippi RiverNeed an agreement with Spain which holds those rights in vast area of Louisiana Territory and FloridaSpain was ally to France and feared if they signed over the land the British would retaliate. Maybe the U.S. and Britainwould team up on Spain?
14Pinckney’s TreatySpain meets U.S. minister to Britain – Mr. Thomas Pinckney1795 Treaty of San Lorenzo meant Spain gave to the U.S. all lands east of the Mississippi River (except Florida) and set the 31st parallel as the southern boundary of the U.S.Spain will open up Mississippi River traffic andallow U.S. to use port of New Orleans
15Domestic Disturbances 1783 Treaty of Paris never mentioned the Native AmericansThe Native Americans want their tribal landsBritish still in forts along the rich Ohio ValleyAmericans want to move west into those rich farmlands past the Appalachian Mountains
16Little TurtleBritish still hanging out in forts along Great Lakes and Ohio ValleyIndians ally with British who encourage Indians to resist the AmericansLittle Turtle’s troops are called the Miami ConfederacyThey brilliantly defeat Americans at the Battle of MississinewaHere the Indians fight Gen. Arthur St. Clair.In 3 hours the Miami Confederacy kill 900 American soldiersLittle Turtle will begin to practice negotiations rather than fight battles.For this, he will lose his people’s faith
17Battle of Fallen Timbers 1792 General Mad Anthony Wayne develops a strong fighting force.Little Turtle accepts himBattle of Fallen Timbers (near present day Toledo, Ohio) b/w Miami Conf. & Gen. WayneGen. Wayne destroys the Indians and destroys the forestGen. Wayne marches past British fort to build an American outpost
19Tecumseh (Shooting Star) of the Shawnee Despite later attempts by Native Americans under Tecumseh of the Shawnee to halt white encroachment, the loss at Fallen Timbers and the ensuing Treaty of Greenville (1795) opened the lands of the Northwest Territory to white settlement and initiated the closing of them to Native Americans.
20But, who will be the next president? Meanwhile, George Washington decides to not run again. He will not be a “king.” In his farewell address he warns the U.S. to steer clear of permanent alliances with other nations.But, who will be the next president?
21Democratic-Repulicans FederalistnominateJohn Adams&Thomas PinckneyDemocratic-RepulicansnominateThomas Jefferson&Aaron BurrThe Election of 1796
22Dangers of Parties and Sectionalism Constitution said runner up becomes vice-presidentHere you would have Federalist President & Democratic-Republican vice-presidentAll Southern electors voted for Jefferson & all Northern voters went for AdamsT. PinckneyT. JeffersonJohn Adams Pt 5 election of John Adams...54:00- 60:00 not so pretty now!
23How did political parties affect the results of the election of 1796?
24Meanwhile, in France French don’t like Jay’s treaty with Britain and they start toseize American sailors / shipsat seaPresident Adams sends 3 men to France to negotiate a solution. They plan to meet Fr. Foreign minister TalleyrandThey arrive and are met by 3 low level official who Adams calls “X,Y, and Z” who demand a $250,000 bribe to meet TalleyrandThis insult becomes known as the XYZ Affair and creates a big anti-French feeling at home1798 Congress authorizes 1st American Navy and though no official war, there are 2 years of shenanigans at sea
25“Millions for defense but not one penny for tribute”
26Alien and Sedition Acts Anti French feeling turns into anti-immigrant suspicionsMost immigrants active in DemocraticRepublican PartyFederalist push Alien & Sedition Acts through CongressAlien ActResidence requirement now 14 years!President can jail or deport any undesirable immigrantSedition ActJail for anyone interfering or uttering falsehoods about the gov’tLots of jail time for the Democratic Republicanscourtesy of the Federalist
27Thomas Jefferson & James Madison (the Democratic-Republicans) saw What about our 1stAmendment rights?Thomas Jefferson & James Madison (theDemocratic-Republicans)sawthis as THE PROOF of federalgov’t abusing individual rightsOf course, they go to the States!
28The Virginia Kentucky Resolution States have the right to null and void any act of Congressthey think is unconstitutionalPrincipal of NullificationThis resolution says any federal law not listed in Constitution can be declared null by the statesNo other states adopted this resolution and it died outBut be warned – this issue of states vs. federal will continue
29The first political parties developed at the time of George Washington The first political parties developed at the time of George Washington. What was the KEY issue that caused this?The ratification of the Constitutiondeclaring independence from Englandfreeing the slavescreating a national bank
30Why might a new government react to criticism more harshly than Connection #2Why might a new governmentreact to criticism more harshly thana well-established government?
31In order to help establish a strong economy, print paper money and serve as a deposit for national revenue, what did Hamilton want to create?A national bankA federal reserveA Supreme Courtthe federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
32Why were the Federalists suspicious of new immigrants after the Connection #3Why were the Federalistssuspicious ofnew immigrants after theXYZ Affair?
33Which of the following was a belief of the Federalist Party? they favored an economy based on farmingthey had faith in the common people, especially farmers and did not trust special privilege or businessthey believed in the strict construction of the Constitutionthey favored a strong nat’l gov’t with higher tariffs to protect American manufacturing