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SEVENTH GRADE ENGLISH BENCHMARK 4 GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND MECHANICS.

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Presentation on theme: "SEVENTH GRADE ENGLISH BENCHMARK 4 GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND MECHANICS."— Presentation transcript:

1 SEVENTH GRADE ENGLISH BENCHMARK 4 GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND MECHANICS

2 PASS GUM 3.1.k. Use conjunctions correctly. Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so Correlative Conjunctions: either… or neither… nor both… and not only… but also whether… or Common Transitional Expressions: as a result, at any rate, by the way, for example, for instance, in addition, in fact, in other words, on the contrary, on the other hand Conjunctions join one part of the sentence to another part. Soccer is good exercise, and it is lots of fun! Common Conjunctive Adverbs: additionally, also, anyway, besides, consequently, furthermore, however, instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, still, then, therefore

3 Coordinating Conjunctions: and but or nor for yet so Use these conjunctions to join two independent clauses. Put a comma before the conjunction. sub. verb dir. obj. conj. sub. verb dir. obj. Fiuto likes soccer, and he likes tennis.

4 Correlative Conjunctions: either… or neither… nor both… and not only… but also whether… or Be careful to check subject-verb agreement with these conjunctions. Either the boys or Fiuto (want, wants) to go. (With either…or… look at the subject that is next to the verb – is it singular? Then the verb should be singular. Either Fiuto or his brothers always (leave, leaves) the soccer ball out in the yard. Both Fiuto and his brothers (want, wants) to go. (With both…and… the verb is always plural. It’s like adding two plus two.)

5 Common Conjunctive Adverbs: additionally, also, anyway, besides, consequently, furthermore, however, instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, still, then, therefore These interrupt (separate) in order to connect two thoughts. They can be used two ways: 1. to separate two independent clauses (semicolon /conjunctive adverb /comma.) Example: subject verb sub. verb Fiuto likes soccer ; however, he also likes tennis. 2. in the middle of one independent clause (comma /conjunctive adverb /comma.) Example: subject verb Fiuto, however, likes both soccer and tennis.

6 Common Transitional Expressions: as a result, at any rate, by the way, for example, for instance, in addition, in fact, in other words, on the contrary, on the other hand These, just like the conjunctive adverbs, interrupt to connect ideas; they “transition” from one idea to another. They can make transitions in two ways: 1. They can connect two independent clauses. subject verb sub. verb Ex: Fiuto likes soccer ; on the other hand, he likes tennis. (semicolon/transitional expression/comma) 2. They can interrupt one independent clause, connecting the first part of the clause to the second part. subject verb Ex: Fiuto, by the way, is a championship soccer goalie and a grand-slam tennis champ. (comma/trans./comma)

7 PASS GUM 3.1.k. Use conjunctions correctly. Now – can you use conjunctions correctly? Try this sample test question: Either Fiuto’s tennis shoes or his tennis racquet were bringing him bad luck. What is the best change, if any, to make to were bringing in the above sentence? A. was bringing B. are bringing C. were starting to bring D. No change. See next slide for explanation.

8 PASS GUM 3.1.k. Use conjunctions correctly. Either Fiuto’s tennis shoes or his tennis racquet We have two subjects; the one closest to the verb (racquet) is singular. (were bringing, was bringing, are bringing, were starting to bring) him bad luck. PLURALSINGULAR Now we need a singular verb.

9 PASS GUM 3.1.k. Use conjunctions correctly. Try another one: Fiuto trains hard, as a result, he is a good athlete. What is the best change, if any, to make to hard, as a result, in the above sentence? A. hard; as a result, B. hard, as a result C. hard as a result, D. No change. Hint: There are two independent clauses.

10 -independent clause- conjunction independent clause----- Fiuto trains hard, as a result, he is a good athlete. PASS GUM 3.1.k. Use conjunctions correctly. This is wrong. We have two independent clauses. An independent clause is like a sentence and needs stronger punctuation than a comma. It needs a semicolon. subj. verb adv. conjunction sub. vb. adj. pred. nom. Fiuto trains hard; as a result, he is a good athlete. Yes! A semicolon!

11 PASS GUM 3.1.o Differentiate between active and passive voice. Passive Voice: The football was thrown by Niz. Active Voice: Niz threw the football. Hey, I’m Niz, and I don’t know active and passive voice. What are they? Active:The subject performs the action. More direct, more forceful, more concise; stronger Passive: The subject receives the action. Grammatically correct, but if used too often, can be awkward and can put too many “be” verbs (am, are, is, was, were, etc.) in our writing

12 PASS GUM 3.1.o Differentiate between active and passive voice. The concrete block was broken by Ofuto in his martial arts class. What is the best way, if any, to revise the sentence from passive voice to active voice? A. In his martial arts class, the concrete block was broken by Ofuto. B. The concrete block was broken in his martial arts class by Ofuto. C. Ofuto broke the concrete block in his martial arts class. D. No change. Try this test question.

13 PASS GUM 3.1.o Differentiate between active and passive voice. The arrow was shot skillfully by Nono and hit the bullseye. What is the best way, if any, to revise the sentence from passive voice to active voice? A.Shot skillfully by Nono, the bullseye was hit by the arrow. B.Nono shot the arrow skillfully and hit the bullseye. C. The bullseye was hit by Nono’s arrow, which was shot skillfully. D. No change. I notice that with passive voice, we have a lot of “be” helping verbs. We don’t want too many of those in our writing.

14 PASS GUM 3.2.b.5. Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases. I know introductory participial phrase is followed by a comma, but what if a participial phrase isn’t at the beginning of the sentence? But why do you care, Nez? Zen, I care because of my sport! Every golfer must be able to speak with proper punctuation! Oh, Nez, you are my hero! Nez Zen

15 PASS GUM 3.2.b.5. Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases. Review: Participial Phrase – Group of words beginning with a word that ends in –ing or –ed Introductory Participial Phrase – Always put a comma after it. Essential vs. Nonessential – This just means necessary vs. not necessary. Is the phrase necessary – is it “essential” to the main point (the independent clause) of the sentence, or is it just interesting, extra, added information? Now, the comma rule: If the phrase is “nonessential,” set it off with commas. If the phrase is “essential,” do not set it off with commas.

16 PASS GUM 3.2.b.5. Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases. Nonessential: Nez Netipoti, thinking of the trophy, hit the ball with a powerful swing. Oh, I get it! The main point is in the independent clause! It’s all about me – Nez – hitting the ball with a powerful swing! The whole “thinking of the trophy” thing is nonessential! Put commas around it to show it’s interesting but nonessential! It’s almost like you’re putting it in parentheses or something! Nez

17 PASS GUM 3.2.b.5. Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases. Nonessential: Zen, worried about Nez’s tournament, played her best ever round of golf yesterday! I get it! The big point is the independent clause! Zen played her best ever round of golf yesterday! Never mind the extra, added information that I am worried about Nez’s tournament – that is nonessential! (blah-blah-Nez’s-tournament-so-what- blah-blah-interesting-but not the main point!) Put it in commas! This is a Zen/great golf sentence, not a Nez’s tournament sentence! Yay, I get it! Zen

18 PASS GUM 3.2.b.5. Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases. Could I see an “essential” one? Zen is the girl wearing the cute green golfing hat. Oh! I totally get it! This participial phrase is essential! Without it, the independent clause is “Zen is the girl.” That is just plain crazy! What girl? In this sentence you have to have the participial phrase; thus, it is essential. If it’s essential, you don’t use commas! Yay! Zen

19 PASS GUM 3.2.b.5. Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases. My neighbor is the little boy, building the sand castle. What is the best change, if any, to make to boy, building in the above sentence? A. boy. Building B. boy building C. boy; building D. No change. Now you try this test question: Answer on next slide…

20 PASS GUM 3.2.b.5. Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases. My neighbor is the little boy, building the sand castle. What is the best change, if any, to make to boy, building in the above sentence? A. boy. Building B. boy building C. boy; building D. No change. Is this participial phrase (building the sand castle) essential? Yes! Without it, all we have is “My neighbor is the little boy…” What little boy? You must have “…building the sand castle.” It’s essential! RULE: If the phrase is essential, no commas can be used!

21 PASS GUM 3.2.b.6. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. subject verb dir. obj. After Nase served the ball, subject verb dir. obj. ----prep. phrase---- Esan hit the ball over the net. Nase Esan Introductory adverb clause modifies (describes) the verb hit. It tells when Esan hit the ball. He hit it after Nase served the ball.

22 PASS GUM 3.2.b.6. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. subject verb direct obj. After Nase served the ball, There are dependent and independent clauses. This one is dependent because it can’t stand alone. A clause has a subject and verb (Nase served). Nase

23 PASS GUM 3.2.b.6. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. subject verb dir. obj. ----prep. phrase---- Esan hit the ball over the net. This is an independent clause because it can stand alone. My clause also has a subject and verb (Esan hit). Esan

24 PASS GUM 3.2.b.6. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. after, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, before, as though, if, in order that, because, once, provided that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while Although I play volleyball, I like soccer, too! Before you start the game, stretch your muscles. Because I am tall, I am good at the net. Common Subordinating Conjunctions They are used to introduce adverb clauses. All of these are “subordinating conjunctions.”

25 PASS GUM 3.2.b.6. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. Write three sentences, each beginning with an introductory adverb clause. Use a different subordinating conjunction to start each sentence. 1.________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 2.________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 3.________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

26 PASS GUM 3.2.b.17. Do not use unnecessary commas. Neesie rowed his boat for two hours and blistered his hands severely. What is the best change, if any, to make to hours and in the above sentence? A. hours, and B. hours; and C. hours. And D. No change. See next slide for answer.

27 PASS GUM 3.2.b.17. Do not use unnecessary commas. subject verb adj. dir. obj. ---prep. phrase--- conj. verb Neesie rowed his boat for two hours and blistered adj. dir. obj. adv. his hands severely. Neesie (subject) has two verbs (rowed, blistered). The sentence has a compound verb. This is not a compound sentence. It does not need a comma to separate the two independent clauses because there are not two independent clauses. There are just two verbs.

28 PASS GUM 3.2.b.17. Do not use unnecessary commas. sub. verb dir. obj. conj. verb. dir. obj. The twins love baseball but dislike basketball. What is the best change, if any, to make to baseball but in the above sentence? A. baseball, but B. baseball; but C. baseball. But D. No change.

29 PASS GUM 3.2.b.17. Do not use unnecessary commas. sub. verb dir. obj. conj. verb. dir. obj. The twins love baseball but dislike basketball. D. No change. This sentence has one subject and two verbs. It has a compound verb, but it is not a compound sentence. No comma is needed. sub. verb dir. obj. conj. sub. verb. dir. obj. The twins love baseball, but they dislike basketball. This is a compound sentence; it has two sets of subjects and verbs, separated by a comma and conjunction.

30 PASS GUM 3.2.b.18. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses. subject verb subject verb Zeus plays drums; Neus plays guitar. Zeus Neus

31 PASS GUM 3.2.b.18. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses. subject verb direct object Zeus plays drums; Why is Zeus plays drums; an independent clause? Hint: Two reasons My independent clause has a subject and verb (Zeus plays). Zeus

32 PASS GUM 3.2.b.18. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses. subject verb direct object ; Neus plays guitar. Why is Neus plays guitar. an independent clause? Yes! 1. It has a subject and verb. 2. It can stand on its own. My independent clause also has a subject and verb (Neus plays). Neus

33 Write two sentences, each with two independent clauses separated by a semicolon. 1._____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2._____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

34 PASS GUM 3.2.b.21. Use a colon before a list of items to mean note what follows. Note to self: call formal-wear rental service for refund, ask why he wore the hat, ask why he wore the flip flops.

35 PASS GUM 3.2.b.21. Use a colon before a list of items to mean note what follows. Ugh! I hate: his shirt, his shorts, and his singing! I need a trash bag for: his hat, his flip flops, and his dumb tie! Don’t use a colon after a verb or preposition.

36 PASS GUM 3.2.b.21. Use a colon before a list of items to mean note what follows. I must remember my three rules for a good vacation: lots of sunblock, lots of fun, and lots of relaxation. This is a good example: the colon comes after a noun, the list is not too long, and the list has parallel structure.

37 PASS GUM 3.2.b.30. Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation. Place the comma or period inside the ending quotation mark. …and when Posey said, she heard her mom and dad cheering with happiness. “Yes, I would be honored to be on the Olympic ice skating team,” Posey

38 PASS GUM 3.2.b.37 Use a hyphen to divide a compound adjective that precedes a noun. That was a gold-medal routine on the parallel bars!

39 PASS GUM 3.2.b.37 Use a hyphen to divide a compound adjective that precedes a noun. Nariz’s first-rate performance put him in the hunt for a gold medal. Nariz’s performance was first rate; it put him in the hunt for a gold medal. Do not use a hyphen if the compound adjective comes after the noun it modifies.

40 PASS GUM 3.2.b.37 Use a hyphen to divide a compound adjective that precedes a noun. Do not use a hyphen between an adverb ending in –ly and an adjective when they precede a noun. Fiuto, the world-famous soccer star, carries the brightly shining Olympic torch into the stadium. Fiuto’s big-nosed team hopes to earn a gold medal in this year’s highly competitive games.

41 PASS GUM 3.2.b.42. Use ’s to make a singular noun possessive. Sam’s toothbrush Jess’s ironing board Nate’s razor

42 PASS GUM 3.2.b.42. Use ’s to make a singular noun possessive. Definitions and Examples 1. ’s – apostrophe s 2. Singular – one 3. Noun – person (brother); place (home); thing (computer); idea (attitude, friendship) 4. Possessive – show ownership Ex: Singular noun – neighbor Singular possessive noun – neighbor’s dog

43 Make your own sentences using the possessive form for the following singular nouns: glass / artist 1.______________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 2.______________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

44 PASS GUM 3.2.b.42. To make a plural noun ending in s possessive, just add an apostrophe. Look at the rowers. Look at the rowers’ oars! Look at the surfers. Look at the surfers’ boards!

45 Make your own sentences using the possessive form for the following plural nouns: 1.hikers ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 2. gymnasts ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

46 PASS GUM 3.2.b.44. Use an apostrophe and s to form the possessive of a plural noun not ending in s. adj. possessive noun sub. verb adj. adj. dir. obj. The children’s school had a snow day.

47 PASS GUM 3.2.b.44. Use an apostrophe and s to form the possessive of a plural noun not ending in s. The men’s capes were magnificent!

48 PASS GUM 3.2.b.44. Use an apostrophe and s to form the possessive of a plural noun not ending in s. The women’s shopping trip was fun!

49 PASS GUM 3.2.b.44. Use an apostrophe and s to form the possessive of a plural noun not ending in s. The people’s exercise class met at 11:00 A.M.

50 Hey, don’t be nosey. Get out of here and study your grammar rules.


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