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Population Census in Indonesia

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1 Population Census in Indonesia 1971 - 2000
SUNARI SARWONO Head of BPS DKI Jakarta Province Jakarta, 20 August 2007

2 I. INTRODUCTION A Census is a main source of valid data that has a very strategic value considering its result can be used in development planning. BPS Indonesia conducts 3 kinds of census, that is Population Census, Agriculture census, and Economic Census. Since the independence’s day, Indonesia has carried out five (5) times population census, which was in 1961, 1971, 1980, 1990, and 2000.The sixth population census will be carried out in 2010

3 INTRODUCTION A Census must cover all population, including foreigner who lives inside the state, except for member of a diplomatic corps. and their family; and must be performed concurrently. The result of a census can be described as a “portrait” of population at a certain time. By implementing a population census once in 10 years, we will obtain description of a demography changing from time to time. The aim of population census (PC) was to count population of a country at "the census day“, composition, distribution, and other demographic characteristics. On the occasion of 2010 population census, it is highly recommended to evaluate all the census and survey that has been done before. Thereby we can anticipate and minimize all constraints and problems that might be occurred Most of all we could get some input to improve the quality of the 2010 population census.

The population census is generally divided into some step, there are: Planning, preparation, collecting, processing and presentation data. From the previous population census we could describe some differences in all stages.

5 THE PLANNING STAGE Stage of Planning started by conducting workshops and coordinating with related institution who act as data consumer. The activities done at this stage is carried out by BPS Indonesia, such as budgeting, methodology compilation, and the questionnaire compilation, etc. The planning of this 5 population census is relatively the same; the difference was only at the material discussion, because it was adjusted according to the current condition.

6 PC 1971 PC 1980 PC 1990 PC 2000 Interdep study (workshop by stakeholder) (workshop by stakeholder ) interdep study Budget compilation examines Methodology Instrument Compilation

In preparation stage, we conduct the mapping activity. This activity; covers all village, census taking area (wilcah) and census block that is part of census area. Regional mapping of villages (desa/kelurahan) was conducted two year before population census is carried out. Meanwhile the mapping of census block/wilcah was conducted one year before population census.

8 PC 1971 PC 1980 PC 1990 PC 2000 Village area mapping (Desa/Kelurahan) Census Block mapping “wilcah” mapping Master frame (MF) and Master Sampling Frame (MSF) Determination of rural/urban classification Data collecting of PODES (facilities of village) Pilot survey/try out Recruiting And Training Of Field Enumerators

9 Next activity in this stage is countryside potency data collected (PODES). This Activity is conducted 1 (one) year before population census is carried out. PODES was conducted in all region of desa/kelurahan to get all the important information related with physical, social, and the economics facilities which are in the village (desa/kelurahan), including of Transmigration Settlement Unit (Unit Permukiman Trnasmigrasi/UPT) and Isolated Society Settlement (Pemukiman Masyarakat Terasing/PMT).

10 C. The Collecting Stage There are some differences among there census in the collecting stage, especially in the case of time of census or " the moment telling" and in the case of the count of households sample, as it has been done in PC 1971, the collecting of PC 1980 and SP 1990 was conducted with two ways, that were: (1) complete count, which was addressed to all peoples who lives Indonesia. It conducted to obtain elementary information at the population, such as gender and citizenship. (2) Sample count, which was addressed to people who lives in a chosen Census Block. It is conducted to get complete information of population characteristic.

11 In 2000 population census was carried out only in one step which was; a complete enumeration. In 2000 population census, there were more questions and more detail information compare to the previous census. Having only a fundamental quest in 1971 and 1990 population census, which were age, gender, marital status and relationship with the head of household, the quest in 2000 population had 15 kinds of questions.

12 PC 1971 PC 1980 PC 1990 PC 2000 Complete Listing (registration of building and household) Complete enumeration of building/ housing Sample Census (5 % households) Complete enumeration for population with permanent residence June 2000 enumeration for population without permanent residence 30 June 2000 Census Day 24 September 1971 31 October 1980 31 October 1990 Census day : 1 July 2000 Enumeration area : Census Block Count region : wilcah Estimation level : Provinsi Kabupaten/ Kotamadya

13 D. The Processing Stage To accelerate the process, the processing was arranged in two ways. There are: The complete enumeration result was processed in smaller area gradually. The research of the processed result was conducted by BPS Indonesia, which were by processing enlisting summary of village (desa/kelurahan). Meanwhile, the result of sample count is processed in BPS Indonesia computerize. The process of enlist sample is conducted in two stage, which were: (1) processing 10% from entire sample to yield the preliminary tables; (2) processing all samples. The following table is describing the process in each population census during

14 PC 1971 PC 1980 PC 1990 PC 2000 Complete census processed in smaller area gradually (BPS Indonesia check it out by processing summarize census block) Complete census was processed in smaller area gradually. Checking the result was conducted in BPS Indonesia by using countryside summarizing Result of housing census was processed in BPS municipality in 2 stage: Stage 1: Getting amount population by municipality and gender. Stage 2: Get Info about housing. Sample census is entirely processed in BPS Indonesia Sample census was entirely processed in 2 stages: Stage 1 : Processing 10 % from list sample (Preliminary tables). Stage 2. Processing of entire/all list sample Result of count of sample processed decentralized [in] 6 Provinces of type A (Sumut, DKI, Jabar, Jateng, Jatim, and the South Sulawesi) and in Center of BPS Indonesia. Result of complete census processed entirely in BPS Province by using scanner.

Storing documents Inspection and batching Editors Edited Documents Stage 1 : Reception, Batching, and Editing Documents Arrival of documents

16 Stage 2 : Data Capture Personal Computer Scanner Continued..
Text Recognition and Verification Scanning Database Edited Documents Stage 2 : Data Capture

17 Stage 3: Validation and Tabulation
Continued.. Online Data Entry With validation Database Clean Scan Summary Staging Tabulation Validation Release Station Stage 3: Validation and Tabulation

18 E. Presentation and Analysis of Data The presentation stage of data compiling based on Summary of sub district information of housing such as: amount of physical building, census building, building in use, amount of households, and number of population which is categorized by age, gender, marital status, religion, and citizenship.

19 PC 1971 PC 1980 PC 1990 PC 2000 Publication was published 12 series, those are: - Series of A and B ( count complete - Series C (preliminary tables) - Series D (population by province - Series E (population by municipalities by province - Series F (housing by province - Series G (Housing by municipality - Series H (description and analysis) - Series I ( Evaluate age reporting) - Series J (Fertility/ Mortality estimation) - Series K (population projection) - Series L ( others analysis) Stage 1: Publishing sum of population by sex and administrative territory (Province and municipality) Stage 2: Publishing detailed information such as demography information, migration, education, economically activity, fertility, and mortality more data detailed presented in 28 volumes. 1 volume is national data volume, and 27 volume to each; province (This publishing covered all aspect demography such as: demography information, migration, education, economically activity, fertility, and mortality) Stage 3: Publishing Analyse profile demography for each province more data detailed published in 31 volumes. 1 volume : national data volume, and 30 volume to each province..

20 III. METHODOLOGIES Enumeration Method The enumeration activity applied both “de jure” and “de facto” approach. Those, who have permanent residence were approached using “de jure” criterion, that is, they were recorded where they formally lived; whereas those without permanent residence were approached by “de facto” criterion, thus, they were recorded where they were found.

21 B. Sampling Method Sampling design for sample census was divided into two stage which were : (1) to select the chosen regional systematically (by sorting the sub district by geographical location); (2) to select the household, which were ordinary households and special household. The sample selection of special household is done directly to the member of the special household.

22 c. Concepts and Definitions
Generally, the concept and definition used in 1971 – 2000 Population censuses is relatively the same. There was no changing in population and household concepts, so were the other fundamental information likes education, migration, etc. However there are some difference, such as - physical building concept is only used at PC 1980 up to PC PC 1971 used a census building concept – classification of jobs-field of PC 1971 and PC 1980 is the same, while at PC 1990 and PC 2000 is different. The difference of work concept was found in population census "PC 1971: Working during 2 day in 1 week " and SP 1980: Using two definition for comparation: O Working during 2 day in 1 week O Working during 1 hour successively in 1 week " PC 1990: Working during 1 hour successively in 1 week " PC 2000: Working during 1 hour successively in 1 week

23 PC 1971 and SP 1980 PC 1990 PC 2000 1. Agriculture, fishery, hunt, etc 2. Mining and quarrying 3. Industrial (Manufacturing) 4. Electrics, Gas, and Water 5. Construction 6. Whole sale and retail trade 7. Transportation and communication 8. Finance 9. Service 10. Activity which not clear 11. Searcher work for the first time Industrial-classification was differentiated into 5 types, that are: agriculture, trade, transportation, industrial, and the service. Agriculture was divided into 5 sub sectors. The industrial classification in 10 sectors, those are : Crop agriculture, 2. Plantation, 3.Fishery, 4. animal Husbandry, 5.Other Agriculture, 6. Industry manufacture, 7. Trade, 8.Service, 9.Transportation, and 10. Others

24 d. Questionnaire The format of PC 1971 to PC 1990 Questionnaire is relatively the same, which was designed for the conventional processing. Meanwhile at PC 2000, the format of the questionnaire was designed for processing that use scanner

25 e. Collected characteristic
In every population census, there are differences in characteristic of population. As an illustration, at Population census 1990, some question grafted in questionnaire 1980 is not asked at PC 1990, because it is assumed that will be more precisely in a survey designed special for that need. So was at PC 2000, the characteristic of population that asked was more detailed, but is not performed by sample census. At Population Census 1971 there were some differences in the concept of physical building, because we used census building nomenclature. So that numbering of building was directly at census building. Later on; it was asked whether it was representing entire households or only some part of the building.

26 PC 1971 PC 1980 PC 1990 P 2000 Housing Information - Building Use - Facility of Building - Sum of households Sum of member of household by sex - Status of building Ownership Complete Census - Relation with Head of household - Sex - Age - Marital status Sample census: - Religion - Date of birth/age - Migration information - marital status - citizenship - tribe - Language daily - ability Indonesian - education attaintment - illiteracy ability - Work one week last week - Status employment - Industrial classification (11 group) - Sum of Child Ever Born, and Child Still Alive - Sum of member of household by sex - sex Sample census - Facility of Building - Sum of households - Gender - - Religion ( 9 group) Facility of Building - Old fellow contain - Ianguage daily - ability Indonesian - education attainment - Illiteracy ability - Employment status – Industrial classification (5 group) = Sum of Child Ever Born, and Child Still Alive

Field census worker visit the inhabitants’ households from morning to night . At some slum locations (along railway tracks and river banks) the census workers are turned out, because the dwellers thing that their slum dwellings will be renovated. In some “elite” housing the census worker have to interview family members through the gate-slits, and standing Quite a lot dweller apartment/condominium resident is unwilling to be interviewed In the processing of 2000 population census there arose a problem of “scanner reading".

28 To overcome field problem, various ways are taken
Most “elite areas” are handled by special teams (task forces) from BPS Province and BPS Municipality. The rejection by some community groups, especially in slum areas is persuasively tackled by Head of BPS Municipality, Staff of BPS Province DKI Jakarta, and kelurahan officials. A special team has been set up to deal with community complaints objections of those not included in the census To coordinate with the local officials such as RT/RW Data collection in apartment/ condominium is carried out by a task force

The advantages of using complete census and more detailed collected data at 2000 Population Census are to get "small area statistics". . The difference concept/definition, sampling design, and processing will influence the analytical result of the population/demography data. The other most important matter is that socialization must be boosted, because it effectively helps the smooth performance in the field

In the future, these methods can be applied so that the officials (census workers) need not come to the inhabitants’ homes repeatedly. It would be better to make differences for certain areas in planning a questionnaire For the Population Census in the future, there is quite a lot facility of media; this matter shall be maximized as socialization media

31 Terima Kasih

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