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Linguistics Deictics/Pronouns/Japanese Spring 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Linguistics Deictics/Pronouns/Japanese Spring 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Linguistics Deictics/Pronouns/Japanese Spring 2010

2 There’s me & there’s you …& then there are you. How do we talk about you? Which one of you do we mean? Can we be nice to you? Does it matter who you are? How is ‘you’ realized?

3 Here you are – English 2 nd person Steve Singular: Informal you Formal you Plural: Informal you Formal you

4 Here you are again SteveAll y’all Singular: Informal you _____ Formal you _____ Plural: Informal you _____ Formal you _____

5 You – in the North Way NynorskBokmal Singular: Informaldudu FormalDeDe Plural: Informaldedere FormalDeDe

6 You – Iberian Style SpanishAm Span Singular: Informaltutu/vos/usted Formalustedusted Plural: Informalvosotros/asustedes vosotros/as Formalustedesustedes

7 Arabic (No T-V distinction) StandardEgyptian Singular: Male أنت حضرتك Female أنت حضرتك inta/inti hadret-ak/-ik Plural: Male أنتم حضرتك Female أنتن حضرتك antum/hadretkum antunna ‘antumaa’ = dual m/f

8 Japanese 1 st person 2 nd p 3 rd p Sg. Watashi AnataKare/ Kanojo Pl. W-tachi A-tachiK-tachi Thus, J is very easy & reasonable…

9 Japanese – 1 st p sg: morphs ‘watashi’ 私 – わたし Reduced from ‘watakushi’ 私 - わたくし Often ‘reduced’ to: ‘wadasu’ わだす ( 東北訛り - men) ‘washi’ わし old men ‘wai,wate,ate’ わい、わて、あて men ‘wa’ わ ( 青森 : m/f; 愛媛 : 年配の男性 / 二人称 ) ‘wan, wa-’ ワン、ワー ( 沖縄方言 -men) ‘atashi’ あたし young women ‘atai’ あたい women very informal

10 Germanic ‘morphs’ EnglishI DeutschIch DutchIk DanskJeg SvenskJag NorskJeg/Eg IcelandicÉg Old EnglishIc

11 English ‘reduced’ Think of variations in the pronunciation of I.

12 Meanwhile, in Japan: more of I 我 われ ‘ware’ very formal Duplicated  plural (casual) 我が わが ‘waga’ very formal Means "my" or "our". Used in speeches and formalities; 我が社 wagasha (our company) or 我が国 wagakuni (our country).

13 Meanwhile: I…part II ‘ore’ 俺 ( おれ ) casual; male Prev. m/f & 上下 ; now male & =/ 下 ‘oira’ 俺ら ( おいら ) ( 北 ) male ‘oi/oidon’ おい / おいどん ( 南九州 ) m ‘ura’ うら ( 東海東山 ) m/f ‘orecchi’ おれっち (pl  sg) ‘oryaa/oraa’ おりゃあ / おらぁ …’-aa’

14 III ‘oryaa, oraa, bokaa, watashya, atashya, washyaa,’ おりゃあ、おらぁ, ぼかぁ、わたしゃ、 あたしゃ、わしゃあ Chibi-mariko-chan ( ちびまる子ちゃん ) – a popular cartoon character’s speech By extending the ‘aa’ or ‘ya’ sound, your 1 st person sg mimics Chibimariko

15 Deictic Flexibility & ミ 1 st person often used as 2 nd What are we ‘pointing’ to? Cf. “I’ll come over” ミー ‘me,’ pronounced in a Japanese manner is not used in daily life but in fiction it might be used by a character with an international outlook. 最近では 未成年の女子などが使用している。

16 ミ, too In the early ‘80s, a pro wrestler took on two stage personalities; in one he used ‘ore’ and in the other ‘me’ as his 1 st person singular. (no word on the plural) 1980 年代初頭に連載された梶原一騎「 プロレススーパースター列伝」では、 ブッチャーの一人称を、主人公となる ブッチャー篇では「俺」、陽気な脇役 であるタイガーマスク篇では「ミー」 と使い分けている。 In the early ‘80s, a pro wrestler took on two stage personalities; in one he used ‘ore’ and in the other ‘me’ as his 1 st person singular. (no word on the plural) 1980 年代梶原一騎 プロレススーパースター列伝 ブッチャータイガーマスク

17 More of me ‘uchi’ 家 informal - young girls ‘boku’ 僕 informal - m (rarely f) ‘jibun’* 自分 athletics/2 nd p. ‘your name+diminutive’ - w/ children ‘shoushoku’ 小職 - in business ‘sensei’ 先生 - w/ teacher/doctor ‘hongan’ 本官 / - in court ‘kochira’ こちら – in business dealings

18 Sg  Pl: choices - 達 ‘-tachi’ informal. m/f examples: 私達 ‘watashi-tachi’/ ‘watakushi-tachi’/ ‘atashi-tachi’ 僕達 ‘boku-tachi’ 俺達 ‘ore-tachi’ Also can be attached to names to indicate that person and the group (s)he is with (Ryuichi-tachi = Ryuichi and friends).

19 Pronoun + plural 共 ‘–domo’ humble –m/f 私 共 ‘watashi-domo’ ‘watakushi-domo’ *‘washi-domo’ 僕 共 *‘boku-domo’ 俺 共 *’ore-domo’

20 Pronoun + plural 等 ‘–ra’ informal Used with informal pronouns; often used with hostile language 私 等 ‘watashi-ra’ *‘watakushi-ra’ ‘atashi-ra’(?) ‘washi-ra’ 僕 等 ‘boku-ra’ 俺 等 ‘ore-ra’


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