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Striking Back The end of the war 1943-1945. What we’ve seen so far…. What battle was the turning point in Europe? What battle was the turning point in.

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Presentation on theme: "Striking Back The end of the war 1943-1945. What we’ve seen so far…. What battle was the turning point in Europe? What battle was the turning point in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Striking Back The end of the war

2 What we’ve seen so far…. What battle was the turning point in Europe? What battle was the turning point in Europe? What battle was the turning point in the Pacific? What battle was the turning point in the Pacific? How did the United States attempt to weaken the Germans initially? How did the United States attempt to weaken the Germans initially?

3 First Strike As the strategic bombing campaign intensified the allies began plotting for an invasion of Europe. As the strategic bombing campaign intensified the allies began plotting for an invasion of Europe. Stalin wanted GB and the U.S. to invade France Stalin wanted GB and the U.S. to invade France Churchill convinced Roosevelt to invade Italy and knock them out of the war Churchill convinced Roosevelt to invade Italy and knock them out of the war

4 Invasion of Italy The Americans and British invade Sicily and Italy in the summer of The Americans and British invade Sicily and Italy in the summer of The Italians quickly surrender. The Italians quickly surrender. Hitler sends German troops into Italy to continue the fight. Hitler sends German troops into Italy to continue the fight. The Americans and British are finally fought to a stalemate. The Americans and British are finally fought to a stalemate. Mussolini is forced from power; he is later executed by a rival political party. Mussolini is forced from power; he is later executed by a rival political party.

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6 Tehran Conference By late 1943 things were looking good for the allies. By late 1943 things were looking good for the allies. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill all gathered at Tehran. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill all gathered at Tehran. Stalin agreed to attack the Japanese after they had defeated the Germans. Stalin agreed to attack the Japanese after they had defeated the Germans. They decided to break Germany up after the war and decided to create the United Nations to maintain peace. They decided to break Germany up after the war and decided to create the United Nations to maintain peace.

7 Meanwhile…. Throughout 1943 and 1944 the United States was building a massive force of men in England. Throughout 1943 and 1944 the United States was building a massive force of men in England. The Germans, knowing an invasion was coming began to fortify the atlantic coast of France. The Germans, knowing an invasion was coming began to fortify the atlantic coast of France. On June 6, 1944 Commander of the Allied forces in England; Dwight D. Eisenhower, gave the command to attack. On June 6, 1944 Commander of the Allied forces in England; Dwight D. Eisenhower, gave the command to attack.

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9 Preparations The allies dropped parachute troops into France on the night of June 5/6. There job was to capture bridges control roads. The allies dropped parachute troops into France on the night of June 5/6. There job was to capture bridges control roads. The next morning at daybreak 100,000 men headed for shore in landing craft. The next morning at daybreak 100,000 men headed for shore in landing craft. It was the largest amphibious assault in human history. It was the largest amphibious assault in human history.

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13 Smooth Sailing At gold, juno, utah, and sword the allies basically walked ashore. At gold, juno, utah, and sword the allies basically walked ashore. Omaha was a different story. Here the Americans had to fight savagely to secure a beachhead. Omaha was a different story. Here the Americans had to fight savagely to secure a beachhead. By the end of the day all five beaches had been secured; the invasion was a success. By the end of the day all five beaches had been secured; the invasion was a success.

14 Meanwhile… After Stalingrad the Russians had turned the tables on the Germans. After Stalingrad the Russians had turned the tables on the Germans. Throughout 1943 and 1944 the Russians had recovered and began driving the Germans back. Throughout 1943 and 1944 the Russians had recovered and began driving the Germans back. After D-Day the Germans were fighting on two fronts and their homeland was under constant bombardment. After D-Day the Germans were fighting on two fronts and their homeland was under constant bombardment. The end was drawing near. The end was drawing near.

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16 The End of World War II

17 Review Questions? How were the allied forces doing last time we checked? How were the allied forces doing last time we checked? Why would both the U.S. and the Soviets race to capture Berlin? Why would both the U.S. and the Soviets race to capture Berlin? What are some problems we might see in the post war world? What are some problems we might see in the post war world?

18 Hedgerows After D-Day the British and Americans struggled to push the Germans out of the surrounding hedgerows. After D-Day the British and Americans struggled to push the Germans out of the surrounding hedgerows. By the end of August 1944 the Americans had broken through the hedgerows and liberated Paris. By the end of August 1944 the Americans had broken through the hedgerows and liberated Paris. Meanwhile the Russians continued to drive the Germans back. Meanwhile the Russians continued to drive the Germans back.

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20 December 1944 With the Germans caught in a noose Hitler decided on one more major offensive With the Germans caught in a noose Hitler decided on one more major offensive He marshaled what remaining fuel reserves and troops he had and launched an all out attack against the British and Americans in France He marshaled what remaining fuel reserves and troops he had and launched an all out attack against the British and Americans in France Today we call this the Battle of the Bulge Today we call this the Battle of the Bulge

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22 Germany Exhausted At the Bulge Hitler used his last stores of reserves, fuel, and he lost over 100,000 men. At the Bulge Hitler used his last stores of reserves, fuel, and he lost over 100,000 men. He now had nothing left to stop the combined forces of the Russians, British, and Americans. He now had nothing left to stop the combined forces of the Russians, British, and Americans.

23 V-E Day With the Russians on top of his bunker Hitler committed suicide on April 30 th With the Russians on top of his bunker Hitler committed suicide on April 30 th On May 7 th 1945 Admiral Doenitz surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. On May 7 th 1945 Admiral Doenitz surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. May 8 th is now remembered as V-E Day May 8 th is now remembered as V-E Day

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26 Focus on Japan With Germany defeated the U.S. could now turn its full attention to Japan. With Germany defeated the U.S. could now turn its full attention to Japan. By 1943 U.S. commanders had decided that recapturing all conquered Japanese territory would take too long By 1943 U.S. commanders had decided that recapturing all conquered Japanese territory would take too long Instead they had decided to island hop Instead they had decided to island hop

27 The Pacific By 1944 the tide had turned in the Pacific. By 1944 the tide had turned in the Pacific. U.S. submarines were destroying Japanese war materials at an alarming rate. U.S. submarines were destroying Japanese war materials at an alarming rate. The Japanese were also beginning to see shortages of war supplies, particularly oil, and also of trained pilots. The Japanese were also beginning to see shortages of war supplies, particularly oil, and also of trained pilots.

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29 The Pacific By 1944 the United States had captured the Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands, New Guinea, and recaptured the Philippines. By 1944 the United States had captured the Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands, New Guinea, and recaptured the Philippines. Soon American bombers began hitting targets in Japan. Soon American bombers began hitting targets in Japan. American bombers began dropping napalm on most major Japanese cities; the bombing of Tokyo killed over 80,000 people and destroyed 250,000 homes. American bombers began dropping napalm on most major Japanese cities; the bombing of Tokyo killed over 80,000 people and destroyed 250,000 homes. Japanese planes and warships could no longer get off the ground or leave port because of fuel shortages. Japanese planes and warships could no longer get off the ground or leave port because of fuel shortages.

30 The Death of a Legend In 1944 FDR had been elected to a 4 th term. In 1944 FDR had been elected to a 4 th term. In April 1945, three weeks before the fall of Germany, FDR died from a stroke. In April 1945, three weeks before the fall of Germany, FDR died from a stroke. His Vice-President, Harry Truman, was left to end the war and negotiate peace. His Vice-President, Harry Truman, was left to end the war and negotiate peace. Truman came into office knowing almost none of the top war secrets that FDR had been dealing with. Truman came into office knowing almost none of the top war secrets that FDR had been dealing with.

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32 Manhattan Project The biggest of these secrets was the Manhattan Project. The biggest of these secrets was the Manhattan Project. In 1940 FDR had been warned by Albert Einstein that “a weapon of tremendous and unlimited power” could be created by splitting the atom In 1940 FDR had been warned by Albert Einstein that “a weapon of tremendous and unlimited power” could be created by splitting the atom Worried that the Germans might get this weapon first FDR created the Manhattan project in 1942 Worried that the Germans might get this weapon first FDR created the Manhattan project in 1942 The Project was headed by General Leslie Groves and scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer… The Project was headed by General Leslie Groves and scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer…

33 Meanwhile… American forces needed to get closer to Japan to stage a land invasion and refuel there planes American forces needed to get closer to Japan to stage a land invasion and refuel there planes The planners chose the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa The planners chose the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa On both these volcanic rocks the Japanese fought fiercely… how do you think this influenced Truman and his generals? On both these volcanic rocks the Japanese fought fiercely… how do you think this influenced Truman and his generals?

34 V-J Day and the End of the War Open your books to page 646. Open your books to page 646. Why did the Japanese finally surrender? Why did the Japanese finally surrender? What is the United Nations? How is it different then the League of Nations? What is the United Nations? How is it different then the League of Nations? What were the Nuremberg Trials? What were the Nuremberg Trials?


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