OMF International (UK)2 geography 9,573,000 square km Beijing Shanghai Xian Lhasa Urumqi Guangzhou Kunming
Some Key Historical events before communism. 1839–1842: Opium War – China lost Hong Kong to Great Britain (regained in 1997). Great Britain used Hong Kong as a trading port. 1851–1864: Taiping Rebellion – Greatest civil war the world has seen (20,000,000 people were killed). 1912: Long period of emperors ends –China becomes a republic –Nationalists against the Communists
1949: Communists take power and form The People’s Republic of China led by Chairman Mao Zhe Dong –Nationalists flee to Taiwan and form a government there, led by Chiang Kai- Sheck Beijing becomes the new capital of China (old capital – Peking)
Philosophy and Religion Confucius was addressed as The Master all over China. His teachings were based on virtue and goodness. Confucius believed that the past tells us how to live in the present. His sayings were recorded in a book called The Analects. Analects Other Chinese philosophies include Taoism ( Daoism) and Legalism Buddhism spread to China from India.
When the communist party took over China in 1949 under the leadership of MaoZedong, it called the Nation “The People’s Republic of China”. The Guomindang had retreated to Taiwan, but still called itself the Republic of China. This Leadership is often referred to as the Nationalist Party.
When the People’s Republic of China tried to enter the UN, America blocked them by stating that the Guomindang government was still the legitimate government. (Cowie, 1993, p.241) Consider these Questions: Can you think of a reason Why America would take the side of the National Party over the Communist Party? Was America using their strong influence in the UN for its own motives? Do you think Australia felt the same at this time?
Australia In what H.R. Cowie calls a “basic policy of ‘loyalty to the protector’ ”(1993, p.241) Australia also declined to recognise the communist rule in China as legitimate. What do you think is meant by “loyalty to the protector”?
REASONS TO BE WARY In 1950 China forms an alliance with communist ruled USSR (Russia). The Chinese were involved in the Korean war, supporting the North Koreans in the struggle, fighting against Australian forces who were fighting on behalf of South Korea
China also attacked India in 1962 which caused fears of military expansion in China. This, as we saw in Indonesia’s case, has always been an issue for Australians and their fear of “Yellow Peril” (Calvin, The China-India Border War, 1962)
Trade It is difficult to develop good trade relations with a country that there is a poor diplomatic relation. In the late 1960s, under the Holt administration, Australia started to recognise the communist rule in China as legitimate for trade reasons.
The Chinese government however insisted that “any diplomatic recognition was dependant on Australia discontinuing its recognition of the Guomindang-governed Republic of China [Nationalist Party] based in Taiwan” (Cowie, 1993, 242)
HOWEVER…. It was believed that China also had a hand in the forces Australia was fighting against in the Vietnam war. This made Australia uncomfortable, but in 1971 Australia’s Prime Minister visited Bejing and spoke with Chairman Mao.
THE UNITED NATIONS The Prime Minister’s visit to China in 1971 was significant, because that was the year that the UN decided to vote on reallocating the seat of China to the communist “People’s Republic” as it had remained, until then, under the “Republic of China” even though that government was still based in Taiwan.
When the Australian Labour Party came into power the next year, they followed the example of the American administration and formally acknowledged the Chinese communist party as the legitimate government of China. This is significant because of the way in which Australia’s relationship with China remained “consistent with US policies” (Cowie, 1993, 243)
Trade was finally free to be set up between China and Australia. China has become one of Australia’s largest primary produce markets.
China: Economic Development After the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, China adopted a plan of modernization, The Four Modernizations. Under the new leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China wanted to improve agricultural production, update and expand industry, modernize its army, and import foreign science and technology. Four Modernizations Deng Xiaoping 1904-1997 Zhongnanhai, Beijing Headquarters of Communist Party President Hu Jintao moves China toward capitalism At the 16 th National Congress of the Communist Party, the National People's Congress of China elected President Hu Jintao to succeed President Jiang Zemin. March 15, 2003
Australia may have to choose: China or US July 04, 2008 12:18pm Australia could get caught between superpowers China and US ties may be problematic - report Says Australia faces no threat from neighbours AUSTRALIA'S close military ties to the US could compromise our security unless we also embrace a rapidly growing China.
An independent study released yesterday said that, if tensions between the global superpower, the US, and the pretender to that crown,China, boiled over, Australia could be drawn into a conflict for all the wrong reasons. It also concluded that Australia's South- East Asian neighbours would pose no direct threat for "decades to come". The latest strategic insight from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) painted a disturbing picture of a regional arms build-up led by China and its neighbour India.
"Were great power relations in the Asia Pacific to deteriorate, there would be the potential for our alliance with the US to embroil us in periods of tension or even conflict," the report said. While it did not define it as an "arms race" the report, written by senior analyst Andrew Davies, showed that total regional military might, not including Russia and the US, amounted to more than 8 million troops, 24,275 tanks, 6486 aircraft, 356 warships and 195 submarines.
China was the dominant player with 2.1 million troops, 7600 tanks, 2550 combat planes, 75 warships and 62 submarines. Its defence spending had risen four-fold during the past decade while India, second with 1.3 million troops, 4500 tanks and 48 warships, had doubled its defence budget. The next biggest armies were fielded by North Korea with 1.1 million troops and 3000 tanks and Pakistan - 640,000 soldiers and 2400 tanks. There were almost 2 million troops in South-East Asia and if the US and Russia were added the total figure jumped to more than 10.5 million.
What are the issues that arise from this article?
Australia was by far the smallest, with just 54,000 troops, 138 combat planes, 12 warships and six submarines (three operational) although it remained the biggest defence spender in the South-East Asian region. The Government will release a defence White Paper early next year. Its central theme will be dealing with the rise of China. (from Daily Telegraph, July 4 th, 2008)