Presentation on theme: "Nation-building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim Ch. 34 Power Point."— Presentation transcript:
Nation-building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim Ch. 34 Power Point
The Pacific Rim The Pacific Rim is a region in East Asia including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan. These areas experienced rapid growth rates, expanding exports, and major industrialization. They are also characterized by a distinct Chinese influence in government planning and control.
Japan’s Recovery Following WWII, Japan experienced a rapid recovery due in main part to U.S. intervention. Japanese recovery included the following measures: 1) Occupation by U.S. forces to ensure stability in a war ravaged nation. Headed up by General Douglas MacArthur (#2b) 2) Japan’s military was disbanded. (#2b) 3) Democratization of Japanese society by A) women’s suffrage (#2d) B) establishment of labor unions (#2f) C) Abolishing Shintoism as a state religion (Why?) (#2c)
Japanese Recovery Cont’d 4) Economic reforms like breaking up estates for the benefit of small farmers.(#2f) 5) A new constitution which declared parliament as the supreme gov’t body. (#2a) 6) Civil liberties extended like gender equality in marriage (#2d) and collective bargaining rights.(#2f)
Japanese Recovery Cont’d 7) American occupation forces insisted on reducing the fervent nationalism found in Japanese textbooks. Japan put great emphasis on education and school success. It developed one of the most meritocratic systems in the world, with students advancing to universities on the basis of rigorous examinations (sounds Chinese doesn’t it?) (#2e)
Korea: Intervention and War (#3) Korea’s postwar recovery was much more complicated and difficult than Japan’s. Problems set in soon after WWII when the peninsula was divided into a northern and southern portion by the U.S. and Soviet Union. As was expected, the U.S. set up a democratic South Korea and the Soviets installed a communist regime in the North. 38 th Parallel (Demilitarized Zone – DMZ)
Korea: Intervention and War (#3) In June of 1950, North Korean forces swept across the 38 th parallel and invaded South Korea. The Korean War had begun. As part of our containment policy, U.S. President Truman ordered troops from Japan (under leadership of Douglas MacArthur) into Korea. Backed by United Nations forces, the U.S. troops pushed back the North Korean forces to the border of China by 1951. At this point the Chinese, who were worried about the American threat on their border, sent 300,000 troops to support the North Koreans.
Korea: War and Intervention (#3) The fighting reached a stalemate in 1952 at the original border (38 th parallel) An armistice was signed in 1953, stopping the fighting, but a treaty has yet to be signed. Tensions between the two sides remains extremely high.
Japanese Development As the nation recovered from WWII trauma, the government took a more active role in all areas from business growth to private life. Examples: The state set high production and investment goals for its economy and limited imports. (Economic control) Examples: The government actively campaigned to promote birth control and abortion, along with state-sponsored discipline to keep its population respectful and grounded in Japanese tradition. (Private control)
The Economic Boom of Japan (#5) The largest impact Japan had internationally was its rapid economic growth. Several factors contributed such as increased education which turned out more engineers than even the U.S. and not having to spend money on defense since that was still our job. By 1983, the GDP was equal to the combined totals of China, both Koreas, Taiwan, India, Pakistan, Australia, and Brazil!!!
Leading Japanese Corporations (#4) Automobile Industry (Nissan, Toyota, Honda) Electronic Equipment (Nintendo…YESSSS!!!)
Mao’s China (#7) The invasion of the Japanese during WWII, though extremely damaging to China overall, was quite advantageous for the Communist party in China. For the next seven years, the Nationalist party was forced to focus on the Japanese. This allowed the Communists to rebuild and gain many supporters. It did not help that the Nationalist forces were pummeled by superior Japanese military, which made them lose standing in the eyes of the Chinese citizens. The guerilla warfare waged by communists was far more successful and by the end of the war they had taken firm control of the countryside in China.
Mao’s China (#8) Once the war was over in 1945, a four year civil war ensued that the communist emerged victorious from in 1949.
Communist Success (#9) In part, the Communists were so successful because of their social and economic programs which were aimed at improving the peasant’s way of life. Massive land reforms were enacted, education was extended to peasants, and improved health care was provided. Also, Mao’s soldiers were fiercely protective of the peasantry unlike the Nationalist soldiers whose arrival many times meant theft, rape, and murder for the peasants. In short, though the Japanese invasion was important, the communists provided answers and solutions to social and economic problems in China.
Communist Changes Once in power, Mao moved to take firm control of the state in all areas. To help with this, the People’s Liberation Army was instituted to forcibly repress secessionist movements (Mongolia and Tibet). China also played a role in the later Korean conflict (1950-1953) and Vietnam (1959-1974). China had also begun to break away from ties with the Soviet Union due to border disputes, meager economic assistance from the U.S.S.R., and the feeling that Mao was the leader of the communist world with Stalin’s death. (#10)
Economic Growth and Social Justice (#11) Between 1950 and 1952, great landholders were dispossessed and purged as Mao moved toward a more fully communist state. Village tribunals were established to hear complaints from peasants for decades of wrongdoing by the landlords. Around 3 million denounced members of this class were executed, their land taken away and distributed to the peasants. The Communist Party was keeping their pledge: China was a nation of peasants smallholders.
Economic Growth and Social Justice Mao had always had a deep hatred of elitism. He did not agree with Lenin’s approach towards revolution from above, led by a professional, elite class. He distrusted intellectuals and believed firmly that the peasants were the driving force behind revolution. (#12) So, when many of his advisors tried to turn away from the peasantry and focus on urbanization and industrialization, Mao intervened. He began the Mass Line approach in 1955, which established agricultural cooperatives by taking away the land that had been given to individual peasants in order to turn towards collectivization.
Economic Growth and Social Justice In 1957, Mao struck out against intellectuals through his program he called “let a hundred flowers bloom”. Intellectuals were encouraged to speak out on their views of the development of the communist nation. Once they did, they were arrested and usually killed. (#13)
The Great Leap Forward (#14) In 1958, to restore a dying revolution, Mao instituted the Great Leap Forward. Industrialization would be pushed through small scale projects by peasants instead of the huge plants in the cities. Surplus would be aimed at producing agricultural needs like tractors, cement for irrigation projects, etc..
Great Leap Backward (#15) Emphasis was placed on self-reliance within peasant communes. Within months it was apparent that the Great Leap Forward was an economic disaster. Dismal output from the communes (state-run farms) and abuses of the commune leaders led to massive resistance from the peasantry. A massive famine racked the nation because peasants were not allowed to focus on farming as much due to the Great Leap Forward’s emphasis on “rural industrialization.” China had to import grain to feed its people and millions died as a result. China’s national productivity fell by 25 percent. By 1960, the Great Leap Forward had been abandoned.
“Women Hold Up Half the Heavens” (#16) Mao gave women and their issues a prominent role in his revolutionary effort. From early in his life, he had been committed to women’s rights. During the May Fourth Movement, this was one of their key issues. The Nationalists tried to restore women to their traditional gender roles by confining them to the home and teaching that it was immoral for a wife to criticize her husband. The Communists allowed women to serve as nurses, teachers, spies, truck-drivers, and laborers. Women’s contributions brought about this early communist slogan.
Gains for Women (#16) 1) Legal equality with men 2) The right to choose their marriage partners rather than arranged marriages. 3) Increased educational and professional opportunities. 4) Working outside of the home.
The Cultural Revolution (#17) Due to the setbacks of the Great Leap Forward, Mao’s opponents and challenges to power had arisen during the early 1960’s. In fact, he had lost his position as the chairman of the Communist Party in 1960. He began working to build a grassroots campaign that would weed out the capitalist “evils” within his country. Masses of students, peasants, and military launched the Cultural Revolution that would attack intellectuals and all things deemed “Western”.
Cultural Revolution (#17) Student brigades known as Red Guards spearheaded the revolutionary movement. Many of them owned Mao’s “little red books”, which were his pronouncements and ideas on all manner of issues from economics to Chinese culture to revolutionary ideals. They publicly denounced his rivals and accused millions (many falsely) of being intellectuals or capitalists. College professors, plant managers, and children of the bureaucratic elite were forced to confess their crimes against “the people”. Punishment usually was death, but could also be imprisonment or labor on rural communes.
Mao’s Death Eventually the Cultural Revolution was called off in 1968 and the student brigades were banned. (Only after Mao had killed millions of his “enemies”) By 1970, Mao’s rivals had resurfaced, mainly due to his deteriorating health. By the early 1970’s, reconciliation with the U.S. was being hammered out, and it was apparent that Mao’s influence was diminishing. Mao’s death in 1976 brought mixed reviews to his reign over China. While millions were killed and civil liberties were void during his reign, it is hard to argue against the improvement he brought in education, health care, housing, and work conditions for the majority of his people.