Presentation on theme: "Key Terms Mao Zedong: communist leader of North China Chiang Kai-Shek: leader of Nationalists in south China Taiwan: small island off coast of eastern."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms Mao Zedong: communist leader of North China Chiang Kai-Shek: leader of Nationalists in south China Taiwan: small island off coast of eastern mainland China 38 th parallel: imaginary line dividing North and South Korea by their resources Korean War: war between North and South Korea
Civil War In China Civil war breaks out between North and South Mao Zedong was leader of communists and Chiang Kai-Shek was leader of Nationalists May 1949- Chiang and his army fled to Taiwan because Zedong’s army was too powerful China became a communist
Koreans Go to War June 25, 1950, North Korea invades South Korea June 27,1950, UN Security Council called on nations to help the Republic of South Korea Total number of troops in war were 590,000 all under the command of Douglass MacArthur October 7, 1950, UN vote to tell MacArthur to go across 38 th parallel to unite Korea
Koreans Go to War (contd.) November 25, 1950, 300,00 chinese soldiers push south Koreans back across 38 th parallel March 1951, Matthew B. Ridgway and the Eighth Army advance Korean forces back across 38 th parallel and retake Seoul April 11,1951, Truman and Joint Chiefs of Staff relieve MacArthur of his duties for wanting to go to war with China July 1953, the two sides of the war signed an armistice ending the war in a stalemate
By Joe anonuevo Section 26.2 The Cold War at Home
Key Words HUAC-The House Committee on Un-American Activities- a congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following World War II. Hollywood Ten- Ten witnesses from the film industry who refused to cooperate with the HUAC’s investigation of Communist influence in Hollywood Ethel and Julius Rosenberg-Minor activist in the American Communist Party who leaked information about the atomic bomb. They were sentenced to death by electric chair and were declared the first U.S. civilians executed for espionage. Senator Joseph McCarthy-The most famous anti-communist activist. He was a republican senator of Wisconsin who used the growing suspicion of communism as a means to be reelected in 1952. McCarthyism-The making of public accusations of disloyalty without sufficient evidence, as in Senator Joseph McCarthy’s campaign against the alleged Communist in the 1950’s.
Fears of Communism The fears of a communist takeover was fueled by the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and China becoming communist which raised much concern over the increasing spread of communism to the United States and her allies. Soon civilian loyalty was put into question as incidents began to arise in which members of the U.S. government began to leak documents and information to Communist.
Communist Opposition To combat the increasing suspicion of Communist activity in the US; several programs and groups were conceived as to observe suspicious behavior that would be otherwise a threat to National Security. President Truman set up the Loyalty Review Board which examined government officials and see whether they were found to be “disloyal” yet, it wasn’t fount out what would be considered “disloyal.” Those accused would be dismissed of their position. Another major group to investigate Communist influence in the US was the HUAC or House Committee on Un- American Activities which sought out to search out suspicious behavior especially Communist-linked behavior at the height of the Cold War.
Spies at Home Alger Hiss, who held the position of former State Department official, was accused by the former Communist Spy Whittaker Chambers for spying on behalf of the USSR. Chambers’ accusation was that Hiss used microfilm to send messages to other Soviet spies. He wasn’t charged with espionage until it was proven in the 1990’s but at the time he was charged with perjury for lying about passing the documents and was sent to jail. Another case involved the minor Communist activist- Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. At the time, the US was ahead as far as arms race goes with the advent of the atomic bomb. Many experts concluded that it would take the USSR 3-5 years to figure out how to produce atomic bombs. It wasn’t until the British physicist Klaus Fuchs admitted to passing information to the Soviet’s and as a result the Soviets created an atomic bomb 18 months earlier than expected. In his trial, he also mentioned the Rosenberg’s involvement. They were also tried but denied any accusations and chose not to release any information. They were found guilty and were given the death sentence. They became the first US civilians executed for espionage.
Senator McCarthy’s Campaign Joseph McCarthy was a republican senator from Wisconsin, who manipulated the nation’s fears of Communist for votes to a re-election. His technique of exposing Communist became known as McCarthyism. Whenever he was spoken against, he would blame the accuser of being Communist. His accusation went as high as the US army which would mark his downfall. After further investigation the Senate punish him for misconduct.
McCarthyism and its Effects McCarthyism was a tactic used by Joseph McCarthy as a means to gain votes by addressing the fear of Communist whenever he was spoken against. His victims would be blacklisted but, McCarthyism also struck fear into the public as more and more people would be accused be it civilians or government officials. It forced the public to take loyalty oaths and go through loyalty investigations. Many people were also in fear of speaking out in fears that they would be accused. Labor union activity was also put on the decline so as to not be suspicious of Communist or Communist-related activity.
GI Bill of Rights Congress passed the GI Bill of Rights in 1944 The Bill was constructed to help ease veterans’ return to civilian life It guaranteed people a year’s unemployment benefits while they looked for jobs, and offered low-interest, federally guaranteed loans Families used the Bill benefits to buy homes and start businesses
Housing Problems Many returning veterans returned home from war and faced severe housing shortage People began to leave the cities and settle in the suburbs Suburb is a residential town or community near a city William Levitt and Henry Kaiser used an efficient assembly line to build homes in the suburbs to help fix the housing shortages
Next Man Up Harry S. Truman abruptly became president after Franklin D. Roosevelt’s death in 1945 Truman took initiative right away by convincing the Congress to draft striking workers into the army Truman was blamed for the nation’s inflation and labor unrest, but was still nominated president in 1948 by the Democrats His “Give ‘em hell, Harry” campaign helped him win the election by such a small margin to Dewey. Dixiecrat was one of the Southern delegates who, to protest President Truman’s civil rights policy, walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention and formed the States’ Rights Democratic Party The economic program Truman used was called the Fair Deal - an extension of Franklins New Deal- which included measures to increase minimum wage, to extend social security coverage, and to provide housing for low-income families
Ike Has Arrived Dwight D. Eisenhower was commonly called “Ike” and became the Republican President of the United States in 1952, winning 55 % of the popular vote against Adlai Stevenson Governor of Arkansas did not allow blacks to enroll in an all white high school Eisenhower raised minimum wage, extended social security and unemployment benefits, increased funding for public housing, and backed the creation of the interstate highways which increased his popularity greatly Ike became a more popular figure and was reelected in 1956
Racial Discrimination The Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka was a major court case that the Supreme Court ruled stating public schools should be racially integrated In 1955 Rosa Parks sparked the Civil Rights Movement by refusing to give up her seat to a white man on the bus Orval Faubus, the governor of Arkansas tried to keep blacks out of an all-white high school in Little Rock in September 1957 Eisenhower promoted his power by sending the First Airborne to help ensure that black students were able to attend class
Little Rock Nine The nine African – American students who were initially not allowed to enroll in an all white high school in Little Rock, Arkansas
The Organization of Man Conglomerates- A major corporation that includes smaller companies in unrelated industries Franchise- A company that offers similar products and services at numerous locations
Suburban Lifestyle Post WWII Americans moved to the suburbs to raise their families The Baby Boom was a time of high American birth rate from 1946-1964 Dr. Jonas Salk- developed a vaccine for polio http://www.treehugger.com/corporate- responsibility/obama-mccain-and-ethanol- debate-one-thingatms-missing.html
Consumerism -the buying of material goods With many new products coming out businesses began to advertise more than ever. Advertisements showed up on tv, billboards on the side of major roadways, magazine adds etc. The use of credit cards also became prevalent. “Buy Now, Pay Later”] The first credit card was issued by the Diner’s Club in 1950. Manufacturers also had strategies to bring in more profit. One of which is called planned absolescence. Manufacturers began to create products so they would wear out in a short period of time. http://alboo ms.wordpress.com/
Automobiles The Interstate Highway Act was signed by president Eisenhower in 1956. This created a nationwide highway network. 41,000 miles of expressways. The highways were originally created for military use but ended up being used by many suburban families to commute to and from work, social events ect. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Road_trip
Mass Media- Means of communication that reach large audiences. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)- The government agency that regulates and licenses television, telephone, telegraph, radio, and other communications industries. The Beat Movement- A social and aristocratic movement of the 1950s, stressing unrestrained literary self-expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture. Beatniks- Followers of The Beat Movement. Rock n’ Roll- a form of popular music, characterized by heavy rhythms and simple melodies, that developed from rhythm and blues in the 1950s. The Golden Age- The period of the rapid expansion of television. Vocab
Milton Berle- Attracted huge audiences with The Texaco Theatre. Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz- Stars of the situation comedy I Love Lucy. Nat Cole- The first African- American to have a weekly half-hour show on national television. People To Know
Television- Television became a large part of the American culture during the 1950s. It was in traduced in 1948, and by 1960 about 90% of homes had a TV set. Poetry- Poetry was a prominent style of media during this time and it began to become more popular, especially with the Beatniks. Movies- Were very popular in the 50s even through the emergence of television;. The Expansion of Mass Media
Beatniks- Followers of The Beat Movement Rock n’ Roll- a form of popular music, characterized by heavy rhythms and simple melodies. African- American Radio- after radio became integrated, the amount of stations aimed at black listeners sprouted. By 1954 there were 250 black stations. The Emergence of Subcultures