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The Cold War 1947-1991. Post War to Cold War GI Bill – Congress passed this to allow soldiers returning home access to low interest loans and free education.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1947-1991. Post War to Cold War GI Bill – Congress passed this to allow soldiers returning home access to low interest loans and free education."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Post War to Cold War GI Bill – Congress passed this to allow soldiers returning home access to low interest loans and free education GI Bill – Congress passed this to allow soldiers returning home access to low interest loans and free education Baby Boom – the population jumped in the years following WWII (Baby Boomers are those born 1945 – 1960) Baby Boom – the population jumped in the years following WWII (Baby Boomers are those born 1945 – 1960) Consumerism – WWII had ended the Great Depression & people had jobs and were spending money Consumerism – WWII had ended the Great Depression & people had jobs and were spending money

3 Levittown

4 1950’s Pop culture Norman Rockwell – idealistic pictures of life in America Norman Rockwell – idealistic pictures of life in America Dr. Jonas Salk – created vaccine for polio, wrote books on child rearing Dr. Jonas Salk – created vaccine for polio, wrote books on child rearing Mass Media – TV could reach large #’s of people Mass Media – TV could reach large #’s of people Little Richard brings in Rock-n-Roll – then Chuck Berry & Elvis Presley Little Richard brings in Rock-n-Roll – then Chuck Berry & Elvis Presley Teenagers became an all new market Teenagers became an all new market Beat Movement – nonconformist of the time Beat Movement – nonconformist of the time Jackie Robinson – integrated MLB in 1947 Jackie Robinson – integrated MLB in 1947

5 Norman Rockwell Paintings

6 Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley

7 Jackie Robinson and Little Richard

8 James Dean and Marilyn Monroe

9 The British Invasion

10 The Cold War (1947–1991) was the continuing power struggle The Cold War (1947–1991) was the continuing power struggle -existing after World War II (1939–1945) between the Communist World -primarily the Soviet Union and its allies, and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies. Definition:

11 Causes of the Cold War WWII – USSR lost 20 million people and were determined to gain #’s through Satellite Nations – those nations under Soviet control WWII – USSR lost 20 million people and were determined to gain #’s through Satellite Nations – those nations under Soviet control Post-War differences of opinions – Yalta Conference and control of Germany and Poland Post-War differences of opinions – Yalta Conference and control of Germany and Poland USSR’s creation of the “Iron Curtain” – symbolic of communist domination and oppression USSR’s creation of the “Iron Curtain” – symbolic of communist domination and oppression Stalin pledged to spread communism Stalin pledged to spread communism

12 Post War Europe

13 Events of the Cold War Under Truman Truman Doctrine – promised assistance to countries trying to resist communist oppression Truman Doctrine – promised assistance to countries trying to resist communist oppression Marshall Plan – promised financial aid to rebuild post WWII Europe Marshall Plan – promised financial aid to rebuild post WWII Europe Germany, including it’s capital of Berlin was divided into four occupation zones each controlled by and Allied country. Germany, including it’s capital of Berlin was divided into four occupation zones each controlled by and Allied country. West Germany under control from the US, British, and French prospered while East Germany under Soviet control did not. West Germany under control from the US, British, and French prospered while East Germany under Soviet control did not.

14 Berlin Airlift Berlin was in East Germany and Stalin closed all transportation routes into West Berlin cutting of supplies to millions of residents. Berlin was in East Germany and Stalin closed all transportation routes into West Berlin cutting of supplies to millions of residents. Trying to avoid war, Truman began the Berlin Airlift – British and US planes delivered supplies by air for 15 months to West Berlin Trying to avoid war, Truman began the Berlin Airlift – British and US planes delivered supplies by air for 15 months to West Berlin

15 In 1949, China fell to Communism making Americans fear the spread of communism throughout Asia. In 1949, China fell to Communism making Americans fear the spread of communism throughout Asia. Also in 1949, the Soviets explode an atomic bomb. Also in 1949, the Soviets explode an atomic bomb.

16 Germany divided after WWII

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18 The Berlin blockade increased the fear of communist aggression in Western Europe. The Berlin blockade increased the fear of communist aggression in Western Europe. As a result NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was formed as a defensive alliance. As a result NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was formed as a defensive alliance. Then, the USSR formed the Warsaw Pact- Soviet alliance. Then, the USSR formed the Warsaw Pact- Soviet alliance. Policy of Containment – efforts to prevent the spread of communism Policy of Containment – efforts to prevent the spread of communism

19 Cold War and Korea After WWII, the 38 th Parallel divided North Korea (supported by the Soviets) and South Korea (supported by the US). After WWII, the 38 th Parallel divided North Korea (supported by the Soviets) and South Korea (supported by the US). In 1950, Communist N. Korea attacked In 1950, Communist N. Korea attacked S. Korea and the UN sent troops in led by Gen. MacArthur. S. Korea and the UN sent troops in led by Gen. MacArthur. - China joined N. Korea and it led to a stalemate. - China joined N. Korea and it led to a stalemate. - In 1953, both sides signed an armistice and Korea remained divided. - In 1953, both sides signed an armistice and Korea remained divided.

20 Korean War

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22 The Cold War AT Home The fear of Communism spread in the US beginning an Anti-communist crusade that violated the civil rights of many Americans. The fear of Communism spread in the US beginning an Anti-communist crusade that violated the civil rights of many Americans.

23 Fear of Communism- Fear of Communism- EXAMPLES: 1. HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committees) – check for communist infiltration in US EXAMPLES: 1. HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committees) – check for communist infiltration in US 2. Truman’s Loyalty Program – investigate govt. workers 2. Truman’s Loyalty Program – investigate govt. workers 3. McCarthyism (Sen. Joseph McCarthy) lead a “witch hunt” in the US for communists 3. McCarthyism (Sen. Joseph McCarthy) lead a “witch hunt” in the US for communists Spy Cases – The Rosenbergs & Alger Hiss

24 McCarthyism

25 Cold War Under Eisenhower The US and the USSR raced to develop the H- bomb (US won in 1952, but Soviets had one in 1953) The US and the USSR raced to develop the H- bomb (US won in 1952, but Soviets had one in 1953) Policy of Brinkmanship – willingness of the US to threaten war against Soviet aggression Policy of Brinkmanship – willingness of the US to threaten war against Soviet aggression

26 Eisenhower created the CIA to gather information abroad and use covert operations to weaken government against the US. Eisenhower created the CIA to gather information abroad and use covert operations to weaken government against the US. Eisenhower Doctrine – promised to defend the Middle East against communist attack. Eisenhower Doctrine – promised to defend the Middle East against communist attack. Israel had been formed in 1948 Israel had been formed in 1948

27 John F. Kennedy- elected in 1960

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29 Cold War Under Kennedy Communist Fidel Castro takes over Cuba Communist Fidel Castro takes over Cuba Bay of Pigs (1961) – A U.S. supported invasion of Cuba- It failed terribly and embarrassed Kennedy making him look incompetent. Bay of Pigs (1961) – A U.S. supported invasion of Cuba- It failed terribly and embarrassed Kennedy making him look incompetent.

30 Cuban Missile Crisis – Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba pointed at the US. It was a test for Kennedy and he passed forcing the Soviets to back down. Cuban Missile Crisis – Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba pointed at the US. It was a test for Kennedy and he passed forcing the Soviets to back down.

31 Cuban Missile Crisis- 1962

32 Missile Range

33 Berlin Wall – The Soviets erected the wall stopping the flow between East and West Berlin and increasing tensions in the Cold War. Berlin Wall – The Soviets erected the wall stopping the flow between East and West Berlin and increasing tensions in the Cold War.

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35

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37 Soviets build the Berlin Wall

38 JFK in the Oval Office

39 JFK and Khrushchev

40 JFK and Krushev

41 Cuban Missile Crisis

42 Space Race and Kennedy’s New Frontier The Soviets launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite (1957) The Soviets launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite (1957) U-2 Incident – US spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union ** Showed the US that the USSR had developed long range missiles. U-2 Incident – US spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union ** Showed the US that the USSR had developed long range missiles. April 12, 1961 – Yuri Gagarin (Soviet) was the first man in Space April 12, 1961 – Yuri Gagarin (Soviet) was the first man in Space May 5, 1961 – Alan Shepard became the 1 st American in Space. May 5, 1961 – Alan Shepard became the 1 st American in Space. July 20, 1969 – Neil Armstrong became the 1 st man on the moon. July 20, 1969 – Neil Armstrong became the 1 st man on the moon.

43 Lyndon B. Johnson

44 Johnson’s Great Society Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President when Kennedy is assassinated in 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President when Kennedy is assassinated in 1963 LBJ’s program, (Great Society), declared war on poverty and promoted equal opportunities for all. Ex: LBJ’s program, (Great Society), declared war on poverty and promoted equal opportunities for all. Ex: 1) funded ed. 2) Medicare and Medicaid 3) opened immigration 4) triggered the environmental movement

45 LBJ- Lyndon Baines Johnson nonverbal/lbj.htm nonverbal/lbj.htm nonverbal/lbj.htm nonverbal/lbj.htm

46 LBJ runs for re-election 1964

47 The Warren Court Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court led a wave of liberal reform going along with the “Great Society”. Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court led a wave of liberal reform going along with the “Great Society”. - Brown v. Board – ended school segregation - Brown v. Board – ended school segregation - cases requiring the fair districting of legislative districts - cases requiring the fair districting of legislative districts - Mapp v. Ohio – concerned illegally seized evidence - Mapp v. Ohio – concerned illegally seized evidence - Gideon v. Wainwright – free council must be provided - Gideon v. Wainwright – free council must be provided - Miranda v. Arizona – rights must be read to the accused - Miranda v. Arizona – rights must be read to the accused - Escobedo v. Illinois – accused has the right to have a lawyer present during police questioning - Escobedo v. Illinois – accused has the right to have a lawyer present during police questioning

48 Vietnam

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50 Vietnam

51 Vietnam

52 The “Burning Monk”

53 Vietnam terms page Ho Chi Minh – Ho Chi Minh – Ngo Kinh Diem – Ngo Kinh Diem – Viet Cong – Viet Cong – Ho Chi Minh Trail – Ho Chi Minh Trail – Agent Orange – Agent Orange – Napalm – Napalm – My Lai Massacre – My Lai Massacre – Kent State University – Kent State University – Pentagon Papers – Pentagon Papers –

54 The Cold War and Vietnam Extension of the “Red Scare” – Vietnam became the showdown for the US against communism Domino Theory – the belief that countries neighboring Communism would fall to Communist oppression if not aided Eisenhower & Kennedy sent in military advisors, but L. Johnson escalated the war.

55 The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – In response to alleged North Vietnamese firing on an American ship, Congress approved Johnson’s request for military powers to protect the US from further aggression. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – In response to alleged North Vietnamese firing on an American ship, Congress approved Johnson’s request for military powers to protect the US from further aggression. The Tet Offensive – North Vietnamese planned and executed a surprise attack on US and South Vietnamese forces in South Vietnam * Proved to Americans that the War was not nearing an end as told * The Tet Offensive – North Vietnamese planned and executed a surprise attack on US and South Vietnamese forces in South Vietnam * Proved to Americans that the War was not nearing an end as told *

56 Nixon and Vietnam R. Nixon began Vietnamization and brought and end to the then very unpopular war. R. Nixon began Vietnamization and brought and end to the then very unpopular war. Paris Peace Accords – officially ended US involvement in Vietnam Paris Peace Accords – officially ended US involvement in Vietnam Saigon fell and all of Vietnam was Communist – Very chaotic – US troops forced to US personnel and 6,000 S. Vietnamese citizens to aircraft carriers. Saigon fell and all of Vietnam was Communist – Very chaotic – US troops forced to US personnel and 6,000 S. Vietnamese citizens to aircraft carriers.

57 The nation remained very divided over the war with the youth in American becoming more outspoken against the war and protests becoming more violent. - Counterculture The nation remained very divided over the war with the youth in American becoming more outspoken against the war and protests becoming more violent. - Counterculture

58 Vietnam Protest Kent State University shootings Kent State University shootings

59 Vietnam Protests

60 Woodstock August 1969

61 Civil Rights Movement 1954 – Brown vs. Board of Education 1954 – Brown vs. Board of Education 1955 – Death of Emmett Till 1955 – Death of Emmett Till 1955 – Montgomery Bus Boycott – Rosa Parks – Martin Luther King Jr. became the leader of the SCLC and the Civil Rights Movement 1955 – Montgomery Bus Boycott – Rosa Parks – Martin Luther King Jr. became the leader of the SCLC and the Civil Rights Movement King pushed nonviolent protest and civil Disobedience – purposeful breaking of a law to change it. King pushed nonviolent protest and civil Disobedience – purposeful breaking of a law to change it – Little Rock Crisis – 9 black students testing the court’s decision to integrate schools 1957 – Little Rock Crisis – 9 black students testing the court’s decision to integrate schools

62 Civil Rights Organizations and terms SCLC- SCLC- CORE- CORE- SNCC- SNCC- Black Panthers- Black Panthers- Black Power Movement- Black Power Movement- Civil Disobedience- Civil Disobedience- Affirmative Action- Affirmative Action-

63 Civil Rights Movement 1961 – Freedom Rides – tested the courts decision banning segregation 1961 – Freedom Rides – tested the courts decision banning segregation 1962 – Ole Miss Riots – riots over James Meredith’s registration 1962 – Ole Miss Riots – riots over James Meredith’s registration 1963 – Violence in Birmingham – most segregated city in the US where nonviolent protesters were violently attacked (televised, shocking Americans) 1963 – Violence in Birmingham – most segregated city in the US where nonviolent protesters were violently attacked (televised, shocking Americans) 1963 – Wallace “Stands in the schoolhouse door” – Alabama’s Gov. prevented black students from enrolling 1963 – Wallace “Stands in the schoolhouse door” – Alabama’s Gov. prevented black students from enrolling That same night, NAACP leader, Medgar Evers was killed That same night, NAACP leader, Medgar Evers was killed 1963 – Freedom Summer – voting rights in Mississippi 1963 – Freedom Summer – voting rights in Mississippi

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65 Civil Rights Movement 1963 – March on Washington – Martin Luther King Jr. gave his “I Have A Dream” speech pushing for legislation 1963 – March on Washington – Martin Luther King Jr. gave his “I Have A Dream” speech pushing for legislation 1963 – Birmingham Church Bombing 1963 – Birmingham Church Bombing Civil Rights Act of 1964 –LBJ Civil Rights Act of 1964 –LBJ 1965 – Malcom X was assassinated 1965 – Malcom X was assassinated 1965 – Selma March 1965 – Selma March Voting Rights Act of 1965 Voting Rights Act of – Watts Race Riots – 34 killed 1965 – Watts Race Riots – 34 killed 1967 – Detroit Race Riots – worst of 75 race riots was killing – Detroit Race Riots – worst of 75 race riots was killing 43 April 4, 1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by James Earl Ray April 4, 1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by James Earl Ray

66 Emmett Till

67 Rosa Parks

68 Little Rock High School integration

69 Sit-Ins – Civil Disobedience

70 Civil Rights Movement

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72 Wallace Stands in the Schoolhouse Doors

73 Medgar Evers

74 Freedom Summer

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76 MLK and Malcolm X

77 Birmingham Church Bombing

78 Selma March – voting rights

79 King’s Assassination


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