Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Faatoafe United States History Unit 7. The end of WWII caused a profound change in the way world leaders and ordinary citizens thought about war."— Presentation transcript:
The end of WWII caused a profound change in the way world leaders and ordinary citizens thought about war. Devastation caused by atomic bomb. Fear from Soviet testing of an atomic bomb. “We have entered the atomic age and war has undergone a technological change which makes it a very different thing from what it used to be. War today between the Soviet empire and the free nations might dig the grave not only of our Stalinist opponents, but of our own society, our world as well as theirs…Such a war is not a possible policy for rational men.” President Harry S. Truman.
American policy makers determined not to repeat mistakes from WWI. WWII had devastated Europe to a degree never seen before. 21 million people made homeless. 20% of Polish population had died. Nearly 1 of every 5 houses in France & Belgium were damaged or destroyed. Industries, transportation, and agriculture in ruins.
Called for the nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery from the war. The United States would then support the program with financial aid. It was a response to American concern that Communist parties were growing stronger across Europe, and that the Soviet Union might intervene to support more of these Communist movements in the war ravaged countries.
“It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist.” Marshall Plan speech, George C. Marshall, June 5, 1947 Formally known as the European Recovery Program. U.S. allocated $13 billion in grants and loans to Western Europe.
WEST GERMANYEAST GERMANY Occupied by the United States, Great Britain, and France Capitalist / Democracy These countries also occupied West Berlin (capital city of Germany) Surrounded by Communist control Occupied by the Soviet Union Communist The Soviet Union also occupied East Berlin (capital city of Germany) They controlled all the land around the city of Berlin
American, British, and French leaders were planning on merging West Germany to create a new country: The Federal Republic of Germany. West Berlin was going to be part of this new country even though they were surrounded by communism. Residents of West Berlin began to flee to West Germany…Stalin responded by cutting off all highway, railway, and waterways into and out of West Berlin. He was literally trying to “starve” West Berlin into giving up to communism.
The blockade threatened to create severe shortages of food and other supplies needed by the 2.5 million people in West Berlin. Truman did not want to risk starting a war by using military force to open the transportation routes so he decided on an airlift. During the next 15 months, British and American military aircraft made more than 200,000 flights to deliver food, fuel, medicine, and even Christmas gifts. Soviets finally gave up the blockade in May 1949.
The Berlin Airlift showed that the United States was willing to support countries in their fight against communism.
Canadian foreign minister, Louis St. Laurent, proposed creating an “association of democratic peace-loving states” to defend Western Europe against attack by the Soviet Union. April 1949 Canada, the U.S., Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Agreed that “an armed attack against one or more of them…shall be considered an attack against them all.” Known as collective security
Soviets create their own atomic bomb in September 1949. U.S. was not longer the sole nuclear superpower. U.S. started plans for the Hydrogen Bomb China falls to Communism Mao defeated Jiang Jieshi, who then retreated to the island of Taiwan with his followers and created the Republic of China This was the only Chinese government that the U.S. recognized.
THE LOYALTY PROGRAMHUAC All new employees hired by the federal government were to be investigated to see if they were communist. Accusations were brought before the Loyalty Review Board. Accusations made it hard for people to ever clear their name. House Un-American Activities Committee. Established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty. Charged that many Hollywood figures had Communist ties that affected their film making.
In September and October of 1947 HUAC called a number of Hollywood writers, directors, actors, and producers to testify. The Hollywood Ten declined to answer the HUAC questions and were cited for contempt of Congress and served jail terms ranging from 6 months to a year. A blacklist was circulated among studios with a list of names who should not be hired
ALGER HISS JULIUS AND ETHEL ROSENBERG He was a high ranking State Department official. Accused him being communist in the 30s. He was convicted of perjury for lying. Spent four years in jail. Accused of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets during WWII. Convicted of espionage and executed in 1953. Later it was found that Ethel was not guilty of espionage.