Presentation on theme: "Martial Law and Solidarity. Martial law in Poland The phrase in Polish is ”stan wojenny”, which translates as "the state of war". Refers to the period."— Presentation transcript:
Martial law in Poland The phrase in Polish is ”stan wojenny”, which translates as "the state of war". Refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983, when the authoritarian government of the People's Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life by introducing martial law in an attempt to crush political opposition to it. Thousands of opposition activists were interned without charge and as many as 100 people were killed. Although martial law was lifted in 1983, many of the political prisoners were not released until the general amnesty in 1986.
Martial law in Poland At 6 AM on December 13, 1981, General Jaruzelski had appeared on the Polish television and he declared martial law in Poland.
Martial law in Poland Official reasons: - economic crisis - threats to energy security Real reasons: - fear of losing power by the Communist - fear of Independent Trade Unions, especially Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity" Food, alcohol and cigarettes rationing card
Solidarity is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the Gdansk Shipyard, and originally led by Lech Wałesa. Solidarity was the first non-communist party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of political repression
Solidarity Solidarity has led to a semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December 1990 Lech Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Leaflet election of Solidarity
Solidarity President pledge on December 22, 1990, before the National Assembly RP
Solidarity Solidarity's influence led to the intensification and spread of anti - communist ideals and movements throughout the countries of the Eastern Bloc, weakening their communist governments. The 4 June 1989 elections in Poland where anti-communist candidates won a striking victory sparked off a succession of peaceful anti- communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe known as the Revolutions of 1989. Solidarity's example was repeated in various ways by opposition groups throughout the Eastern Bloc, leading to the Eastern Bloc's effective dismantling, and contributing to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the early 1990s.