Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer What was the Truman Doctrine? What idea stated that the US would allow Communism to exist where it was, but did not want to let it spread further?"— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer What was the Truman Doctrine? What idea stated that the US would allow Communism to exist where it was, but did not want to let it spread further? What is the Berlin Airlift?
Bell Ringer What did NATO stand for? What was the idea behind NATO & the Warsaw Pact? Why were people upset that China went Communist? What is the dividing line between North and South Korea?
Berlin Blockade Dividing Berlin into four pieces was determined at the Yalta Conference (1945) By 1948 Britain, France, & USA declared their intent to combine their three zones into the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) This angered Stalin, and as a counter move Stalin would halted all ground access to West Berlin -> Berlin Blockade
It was understood early in the Cold War that whoever “fired the first shot,” would be blamed for the start of WWIII. Stalin wanted the Allies to force their way through the Blockade To Stalin’s surprise rather than attack, the Allies began to airlift food, fuel, and supplies into Berlin The Allies forced Stalin to take action to stop them Over 10 ½ months – 270,000 flights into West Berlin – 2.5 Million tons of supplies – Planes landed about every 3 Min
Czechoslovakia becomes Communist 1948- Czechoslovakia had an elected government dominated by Communists Stalin amassed an army on the boarder of the country and called for a communist government, the communist seized control of the country The power grab, coup d’etat, led Truman to believe that Stalin would not allow for the share of power in a country: all communist or nothing – Truman decided to take action
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) To protect Western European countries NATO was formed NATO planned for collective security (if one was attacked, all were attacked) The US contributed the largest amount of money, troops, and weaponry – US, Canada, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands, Iceland, Italy, Britain, Denmark, Norway, and Portugal (Greece & Turkey in 1952)
Warsaw Pact To counter NATO the USSR formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955 They too saw an attack on one as an attack on all – USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania
Hungary 1956 In 1956 a popular revolt against communist and the USSR started in Hungary Imre Nagy, was attempting to free Hungary from Soviet domination, stated they would withdraw from the Warsaw pact, and become a neutral country The USSR, under Nikita Krushchev, crush the revolt killing thousands, captured Nagy, and sentenced him to death The Hungarians had been listening to US radio which urged them to resist communism, and counted on US support to free their country. Support never came.
Fall of China to Communism During WWII the Communist and Nationalists of China had united to fight off the Japanese – Communist= Mao Zedong – Nationalist= Chiang Kai-shek After WWII ended the two sides fought in a Civil War, with the Soviets backing Mao and the Allies backing Chiang Mao and the communists would be victorious, and Chiang would flee to the small island of Formosa (Taiwan)
Many Republicans in Congress started to blame Truman for losing China, a nation people believed could be a strong Asian ally – In reality Mao was very popular & Chiang was not as well liked – Many in the US feared the new China- Soviet alliance. In reality the two were “allies” but China followed its own agenda and never really listened to the USSR Since China was now allied with the Soviets the US needed a new Asian ally: Japan The US lifted sanctions against Japan, and they became an economic power in the region.
US Reaction to China In response to the alliances that China was making with Russia the United States refused to recognize Mao’s Government as the official China, and instead recognized Taiwan Some believed that recognizing China and forming relations with them would weaken the Chinese ties with Russia The US would bar China from the UN and not officially recognize mainland China until 1979
Korean War After WWII Korea was freed from Japanese control. The USSR controlled Korea north of the 38 th Parallel, and the USA controlled Korea south of the 38 th Parallel This would lead to the North developing a pro-Soviet Communist Government, and the South developing a pro- USA Capitalist Government In 1950 the Korean War would start
The North Korean Army, supplied with Soviet Weapons, stormed into South Korea in an attempt to “unify” Korea Truman turned to the UN, and the UN condemned the invasion 15 different nations would send troops to South Korea, with the majority of the troops coming from the USA The UN designated the “Supreme Commander” General Douglas MacArthur
MacArthur invaded North, almost reaching the Chinese-Korean Boarder The Chinese would send more than 400,000 to fight back UN forces, and the eventual stalemate would occur around the 38 th parallel MacArthur wanted to attack China for their roll in the War, Truman rejected the plan
MacArthur publically challenged the President’s choice not to attack China, Truman fired him The last two years of the war were a stalemate, and in 1953 the two sides signed an armistice (NOT A PEACE TREATY) The 38 th Parallel became the rough boarder between the countries, and a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) was formed between the two countries. That DMZ still exists today
Results of the Korea War The war destroyed the majority of Korea – 3.5 million Koreans (North & South) died – 2 million Korean civilians died – 54,000 US troops died – About 120,000 UN troops died in the conflict – North Korea remained (and still is) communist. – South Korea remained (and still is) capitalist One of the most popular TV shows of all time M*A*S*H* was sorta roughly based on/in the Korean War
Competition for the Third World With the US & USSR dividing the world into sides, they bought fought for influence in the Third World- Winning Hearts and Minds Both nations would use propaganda to convince countries that their way of life (Communism/Capitalism) was the better way to go Some countries chose sides, some remained neutral
The USA created the United State Information Agency (USIA) to convince nations to join their side They created films, books, pamphlets, and radio broadcasts The US would transmit 3 distinct radio frequencies into Soviet controlled Europe (Voice of America, Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty) The Soviets attempted to jam the frequencies, and if that failed they played white noise on the same frequency to make the broadcasts impossible to listen to
Supporting “Friendly” Governments The US & USSR also financially supported “friendly” government For the US this mean backing people who were anti-communist, even if the rulers weren’t the nicest of people (Nicaragua) – This often led to the resentment of the USA by the common people-> the opposite of US goals
In the 1950s the US had supported Egypt Egypt started buying weapons from Communist countries. Britain threatened Egypt who responded by seizing the Suez Canal This incident led to Britain, France, Israel, Egypt, & USSR all threatening war. The US had to be the peace maker.
Arms Race In 1949 President Eisenhower announced to the American public that, “an atomic explosion had occurred in the USSR.” Americans feared that the Soviets now also had an atomic bomb Shortly there after the Americans started work on a better weapon, a Hydrogen Bomb (H-Bomb) – Instead of splitting an atom this bomb would fuse them. – This bomb would prove move powerful than it’s atomic cousin
Brinkmanship & MAD The threat of nuclear war was ever present in the 1950s. John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State, responsible for most of these ideas Brinkmanship, or the willingness to go to the brink of war, without going to war, to prevent war, became a government policy Dulles viewed nuclear weapons as a deterrence, and supported the creation of a nuclear arsenal so deadly the Soviets would never attack lest they guarantee Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
Cold War- Home Front The Great Depression had caused some Americans to support the ideals of communism However, as of 1950 the US had only 43,000 registered communist People still feared that communists could be anywhere, could subvert the government, and not being anti-communist was really just being a communist sympathizer
Congress would for the House Un-American Activities Committee to investigate subversive organizations The HUAC committee investigated Hollywood, and those called invoked their 5 th amendment right against self incrimination – Hollywood Ten This led to Hollywood blacklisting anyone who sympathized with communism
This paranoia grew as Klaus Fuchs, a scientist from the Manhattan Project, defected and helped the Soviets build their atomic bomb Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were arrested for spying and giving the Soviets atomic secrets After a short trial both were found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed – Much of the evidence at the time was inconclusive – 1990s Soviet records reveal Julius DID give some secrets to the USSR, his wife did not
McCarthyism February 9 th, 1950 Senator Joseph McCarthy (WI) claimed, “I have here in my hand a list of 205… names that were known to… being members of the Communist party” that STILL work in the State Department – Translation: There are Soviet spies working in the US Government This caused a widespread panic which helped McCarthy rise to extreme importance in Congress
McCarthy would abuse his leadership powers and lead numerous witch-hunts looking for communists in the government, an idea that became known as McCarthyism Despite his accusations, no one was ever proven to be a communist Regardless, many law makers refused to pass bills thinking they would look “weak or soft” on communism. By 1954 McCarthy was formally censured by the Senate, and faded out of importance.
Federal Civil Defense Administration To prepare for the inevitable (yet never happened) nuclear attack from the Soviets the Federal Civil Defense Administration was founded It’s job was to teach millions of Americans how to prepare for a nuclear attack These pamphlets said that citizens could rely 100% on the military (thought they were great) but needed to be personally prepared.