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The Korean War & the continuing Cold War Ch. 19, Sec 3, 4.

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Presentation on theme: "The Korean War & the continuing Cold War Ch. 19, Sec 3, 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Korean War & the continuing Cold War Ch. 19, Sec 3, 4

2 Communist Expansion in Asia Chinese Civil War. – Ended with Mao’s Communist takeover of China. Japanese annexed Korea during WWII. – Harsh treatment of Koreans, hated. After war, Korea temporarily divided at 38 th Parallel. – USSR accepted Japan surrender north of 38 th, US accepted south of 38 th. – Communist gov’t established in North Korea, democratic in S. Korea. – USSR & most US troops pulled out.

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6 Both Koreas wanted reunification. June 1950-N. Korean troops crossed 38 th, invaded S. Korea. – US blamed USSR for invasion, decided to act. US asked for and got UN approval & support. – US sent naval & air support to S. Korea, soon sent troops. – Truman did not get declaration of war, but had Congressional support of actions. 16 UN nations sent troops or weapons, but US made up 80% of force fighting.

7 General Douglas MacArthur led UN forces in Korea. – Existing US & S. Korean forces had been pushed back to southern coast city of Pusan. MacArthur took risk, landed forces at Inchon, behind N. Korean lines, hit from behind. – N. Koreans trapped, retreated back north of 38 th. – UN forces chased, pushed N. Koreans almost to Chinese border, spoke of reuniting Koreas. China had been Communist less than a year, did not want pro-Western neighbor. – Nov. 24, 1950, Chinese crossed Yalu River into N. Korea, pushed UN forces back into South. Rest of war was a stalemate.

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9 Troops on Pusan Perimeter

10 Inchon

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17 MacArthur wanted Chinese Nationalists in Taiwan to invade Communist China, also wanted limited use of nuclear weapons. – Truman said no, MacArthur went over Truman to Congress, Truman fired MacArthur. War was still on when Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected President. – Stalemate continued until – 1953-truce signed, both sides return across borders, fighting is over. US angry over war. – 54,000 dead, 103,000 wounded for no real results. – However, containment worked.

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20 McCarthyism US scared of Communism, Korean War made it worse Wisconsin Senator Joe McCarthy claimed to have list of 205 Communists working in State Department. – Actually 57 names. – McCarthy began to attack people in Senate & in press, destroying reputations & careers. – Attacked Sec. of State George Marshall, other Senators, movie stars, big Hollywood money. Anyone who tried to stop him accused of being Communist.

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23 Early 1954, McCarthy’s aide drafted. – McCarthy couldn’t get draft waived, accused Army of being full of Communists. Army-McCarthy hearings televised. – USA saw McCarthy bully witnesses, make unfounded accusations. – Lost all support from American people. Censured by Senate, lost re-election. Even though McCarthy did expose some Communists & people of questionable background, he ruined many lives and careers.

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25 Dwight D. “Ike” Eisenhower Sworn in as President in Ended Korean War. Provided aid to S. Vietnam when Vietnams were divided. Supported Jewish Israel against USSR- supported Arab states issued Eisenhower Doctrine-US would use force to countries in Middle East requesting aid against Communist aggression. – Would help our allies, and any asking for help.

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27 1952-Nationalist leader took control in Iran, Shah of Iran removed. – US feared new Iran would be neutral or pro- Communist. – US-supported groups overthrew Iran gov’t, restored Shah to power. Made US unpopular in fundamentalist Iran Suez Crisis-Egypt President Gamal Nasser asked for USSR support. – US & UK cut off aid to Egypt. – Egypt seized UK-owned Suez Canal. – UK & France attacked Egypt to regain Canal. Ike persuaded them to back out, losing Canal to Egypt. – Prevented possible war with USSR.

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32 Under Ike, US acted to support pro-US gov’ts in Latin America. – Especially where US had business interests. Helped create Organization of American States (OAS)-to increase cooperation among w. hemisphere nations CIA helped overthrow gov’t of Guatemala, due to left-wing sympathies. – Huge US company, United Fruit, seized by Guatemalan gov’t, new gov’t gave it back. Actions like this led USSR to believe that US was escalating Cold War.

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34 US & USSR both felt WWIII was going to occur. – Wanted to be prepared. Led to arms race-struggle to have weapons superiority US got H-bomb. Led to policy of deterrence. – Build military so strong, if you attack us, we will destroy you. Developed bigger bombs-750x bigger than Hiroshima USSR got H-bomb. – If they launch, we launch, therefore no one launches.

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39 Ike & Sec. of State John Foster Dulles used threat of war to achieve goals. – Called policy brinkmanship-make enemy believe you will go to war so they will back down. – Dangerous, but very successful. US developed powerful weapons to achieve goals. ICBMs-Intercontinental ballistic missiles. – Fired from US, flew at edge of space, separated into multiple warheads, detonated in USSR.

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47 1957-Space Race began-USSR put first man- made object in space-satellite Sputnik USSR shot down US U-2 spy plane flying over USSR territory. – Pilot Francis Gary Powers supposed to have killed self, didn’t, captured. – U-2 Incident made US feel that they were behind in missile & rocket technology. US began huge program to put men in space & on moon.

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