Presentation on theme: "The Korean War & the continuing Cold War Ch. 19, Sec 3, 4."— Presentation transcript:
The Korean War & the continuing Cold War Ch. 19, Sec 3, 4
Communist Expansion in Asia 1920-1949-Chinese Civil War. – Ended with Mao’s Communist takeover of China. Japanese annexed Korea during WWII. – Harsh treatment of Koreans, hated. After war, Korea temporarily divided at 38 th Parallel. – USSR accepted Japan surrender north of 38 th, US accepted south of 38 th. – Communist gov’t established in North Korea, democratic in S. Korea. – 1948-49-USSR & most US troops pulled out.
Both Koreas wanted reunification. June 1950-N. Korean troops crossed 38 th, invaded S. Korea. – US blamed USSR for invasion, decided to act. US asked for and got UN approval & support. – US sent naval & air support to S. Korea, soon sent troops. – Truman did not get declaration of war, but had Congressional support of actions. 16 UN nations sent troops or weapons, but US made up 80% of force fighting.
General Douglas MacArthur led UN forces in Korea. – Existing US & S. Korean forces had been pushed back to southern coast city of Pusan. MacArthur took risk, landed forces at Inchon, behind N. Korean lines, hit from behind. – N. Koreans trapped, retreated back north of 38 th. – UN forces chased, pushed N. Koreans almost to Chinese border, spoke of reuniting Koreas. China had been Communist less than a year, did not want pro-Western neighbor. – Nov. 24, 1950, Chinese crossed Yalu River into N. Korea, pushed UN forces back into South. Rest of war was a stalemate.
MacArthur wanted Chinese Nationalists in Taiwan to invade Communist China, also wanted limited use of nuclear weapons. – Truman said no, MacArthur went over Truman to Congress, Truman fired MacArthur. War was still on when Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected President. – Stalemate continued until 1953. – 1953-truce signed, both sides return across borders, fighting is over. US angry over war. – 54,000 dead, 103,000 wounded for no real results. – However, containment worked.
McCarthyism US scared of Communism, Korean War made it worse. 1950 Wisconsin Senator Joe McCarthy claimed to have list of 205 Communists working in State Department. – Actually 57 names. – McCarthy began to attack people in Senate & in press, destroying reputations & careers. – Attacked Sec. of State George Marshall, other Senators, movie stars, big Hollywood money. Anyone who tried to stop him accused of being Communist.
Early 1954, McCarthy’s aide drafted. – McCarthy couldn’t get draft waived, accused Army of being full of Communists. Army-McCarthy hearings televised. – USA saw McCarthy bully witnesses, make unfounded accusations. – Lost all support from American people. Censured by Senate, lost re-election. Even though McCarthy did expose some Communists & people of questionable background, he ruined many lives and careers.
Dwight D. “Ike” Eisenhower Sworn in as President in 1953. Ended Korean War. Provided aid to S. Vietnam when Vietnams were divided. Supported Jewish Israel against USSR- supported Arab states. 1957-issued Eisenhower Doctrine-US would use force to countries in Middle East requesting aid against Communist aggression. – Would help our allies, and any asking for help.
1952-Nationalist leader took control in Iran, Shah of Iran removed. – US feared new Iran would be neutral or pro- Communist. – US-supported groups overthrew Iran gov’t, restored Shah to power. Made US unpopular in fundamentalist Iran. 1956-Suez Crisis-Egypt President Gamal Nasser asked for USSR support. – US & UK cut off aid to Egypt. – Egypt seized UK-owned Suez Canal. – UK & France attacked Egypt to regain Canal. Ike persuaded them to back out, losing Canal to Egypt. – Prevented possible war with USSR.
Under Ike, US acted to support pro-US gov’ts in Latin America. – Especially where US had business interests. Helped create Organization of American States (OAS)-to increase cooperation among w. hemisphere nations. 1954-CIA helped overthrow gov’t of Guatemala, due to left-wing sympathies. – Huge US company, United Fruit, seized by Guatemalan gov’t, new gov’t gave it back. Actions like this led USSR to believe that US was escalating Cold War.
US & USSR both felt WWIII was going to occur. – Wanted to be prepared. Led to arms race-struggle to have weapons superiority. 1952-US got H-bomb. Led to policy of deterrence. – Build military so strong, if you attack us, we will destroy you. Developed bigger bombs-750x bigger than Hiroshima. 1953-USSR got H-bomb. – If they launch, we launch, therefore no one launches.
Ike & Sec. of State John Foster Dulles used threat of war to achieve goals. – Called policy brinkmanship-make enemy believe you will go to war so they will back down. – Dangerous, but very successful. US developed powerful weapons to achieve goals. ICBMs-Intercontinental ballistic missiles. – Fired from US, flew at edge of space, separated into multiple warheads, detonated in USSR.
1957-Space Race began-USSR put first man- made object in space-satellite Sputnik. 1960-USSR shot down US U-2 spy plane flying over USSR territory. – Pilot Francis Gary Powers supposed to have killed self, didn’t, captured. – U-2 Incident made US feel that they were behind in missile & rocket technology. US began huge program to put men in space & on moon.