Presentation on theme: "Geography 3rd largest country ( Russia & Canada ) Largest population: 1.33 billion ( 1/5 of the human race) Bound by Gobi desert and Himalayas: caused."— Presentation transcript:
Geography 3rd largest country ( Russia & Canada ) Largest population: 1.33 billion ( 1/5 of the human race) Bound by Gobi desert and Himalayas: caused unique culture without outside influence which led to Ethnocentrism 96% of population lives in the East (mountains and deserts) Huang He (yellow river) and Yangtze Rivers: important rivers in China. Southern China - monsoons bring much needed water Great Wall – 5th century BC to keep out foreign invaders – 1400 mi. long / 18-30 ft tall
Before 1949: Dynastic cycles (1500 BC – 1911 AD) 1925: Chiang Kai-shek began a non-communist party (Nationalist Party), and was challenged by Mao Zedong’s Communist Party. War of Liberation: Nationalists and Communists fought for control. The Communists won. After the war, Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan. China became the People’s Republic of China Communism: belief that everyone should live in much the same way, have similar homes, and earn nearly equal wages. Chang Kai-shek Mao Zedong
The Great Leap Forward took two forms: Mass steel campaign was the goal Formation of the people's communes The ideas behind the Great Leap Forward were from local party organization. Experts were not consulted.
People from the country were organized to produce set amounts of steel = Quotas Life was militarized for this battle for steel. Small backyard furnaces were built, and everybody pitched in with around-the-clock shifts. Quotas of used iron had to be met; cooking pots were smashed, door handles were melted down in order to meet the production demands. Later it became clear the quality of this mass-produced people's steel was so poor that no use could be found for it (pig iron). Effects of this production battle proved to be disastrous for the environment, using up wooded lands
Government formed Collectives: farmers joined together to collectively raise crops on land worked in common Various forms of rural collectives/cooperatives were merged into huge people's communes. A typical commune embraced 60 villages and 20,000 members. All buildings, tools, machines, land and dwellings were owned by the commune. People worked in teams of 150 to 600, were paid a small wage, and given clothing, food and housing. A typical rural Chinese family working on an agricultural commune earned about US $700 a year. Because everybody was involved in the battle to produce steel, labor power was lacking to bring in the harvests.
Despite the indications that the Great Leap had failed to reach its objectives, the movement continued to be upheld. The movement turned into a disaster when in the period 1959-1961 China was struck by natural disasters. More than an estimated 30 to 40 million people died in the ensuing famine.
Also known as “The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”. It was a social struggle between Mao Zedong and other top party leaders for dominance in the CCP (Chinese Communist Party). He shows people who do not agree as part of the bourgeoisie in the struggle between the proletariat versus the bourgeoisie.
May 1966, the top party official in Beijing University’s Philosophy Department wrote a big character poster, a dazibao, attacking the administration of her university.
This starts other dazibao. In the Cultural Revolution, these are used to humiliate, attack, and criticize people.
Mao calls on high school and college students who were loyal supporters. They become very important to making the revolution more radical.
They carry around their “Little Red Books” with them everywhere and show them as a way of showing their love of Chairman Mao. They wore red armbands and were more radical.
The Red Guards attack people they believe lack the revolutionary zeal or whose background could be called into question.
Schools close but students still go to school to write up dazibao. Public “struggle meetings” are held to accuse people of being against the Cultural Revolution, Mao, China, Communism or whose families appear to be too bourgeois.
These struggle meetings are intended to humiliate their victims.
Sometimes they beat and torture their victims.
They make them stand on stage so that people can scream accusations at them.
Many were sent to prison or just disappeared. Some committed suicide as a result of the struggle meetings. Some died from the beatings of the struggle meetings.
Mao realizes that he has no choice but to take control of the Cultural Revolution. In July 1968, the Red Guards are disbanded. In the late 1960s, high schools and universities were reopened. Young intellectuals and those with bad class backgrounds were sent to the countryside to be re-educated (de-Westernized).
1976: Deng Xiaoping (Dung Zhao Ping) Since Mao’s death – Four Modernizations Program Modernize agriculture: Broke up farm communes into privately owned farms Improve military Upgrade industry: “enterprise zones” no restrictions on business ownership Develop science Greater contact with Western nations Unrestricted trade with US – we think it will give us more influence in changing China’s policies such as human rights.
Tiananmen Square, Beijing. Western influence and culture led to student protests where they demanded more political freedoms Red Guards came in with tanks and guns. Numbers of students were killed (200-3,000), and numerous arrests were made.
Paper Money Parachute Gunpowder Umbrella Kite Cards Compass Printing press Crossbow Flares Fireworks Rocket Bombs Grenades Mines Guns Matches Wheelbarrow Cast Iron Helicopter rotor and propeller Decimal system Seismograph Circulation of blood Brandy/whiskey Crops in a row Hoe, iron plow Martial Arts- develop strength, discipline, self- knowledge Medicine Natural (herbal) remedies Acupuncture
1949 – formed alliance with USSR Chinese troops fought against U.S. in Korean War (1950-53) 1950 – China takes over Tibet. US supported Nationalist Party in Taiwan until 1972 1972 President Nixon visited China Communist government replaced Nationalist Government as representative of China in UN
1979 – US and China established full diplomatic relations 1997 – Britain returned Hong Kong to China after150 years 2001 – U.S. aircraft and Chinese fighter collide. Created an international incident. 2003 – First Chinese man in space 2008 – Olympics in Beijing
Command – the government makes most or all the decisions. Limited free enterprise Responsibility system – lease land Agriculture - 11% suitable for farming – 80% population works on labor-intensive farms (rice, wheat, sorghum, millet, soybeans). Feeding themselves is a challenge. Minerals – coal, iron ore, uranium Mechanization (tractors) have helped increase production, but puts people out of work Movement to the cities – “Floating Population”
Economy growing faster than any other nation – 4x’s larger than 15 years ago 1 car/every 500 people Factories produce more goods per year Jade and Silk – 1,000 cocoons to make one shirt Trade has increased – western goods Per capita income in 1978 just after Mao died - $67 per year Predicted to reach $1,700 per capita by 2010, but already $8,000 today
Plain clothes, no jewelry – Western clothes Courteous and disciplined Cities without pet cats, dogs – against law Very few fat men, women, or children Tai chi in the parks in the morning Respect for old people – they live with family – very few retirement homes Stifling dust and air pollution in large cities – ecological disaster areas 5000 years of history to learn
Women must work outside the home + do all the household chores 1979 rule – One child/unless disabled, then may have a second with government permission – exceptions are made for minority groups If two – 30% of salaries cut Peasants stay peasants Son’s responsibility to take care of parents but many son’s leave to find work in the rural areas Baby mice wine – Chinese medicine – makes blood rich – 10 mice in each bottle If you rob a bank – death Rape someone – 25 years
70% speak Mandarin Chinese Written Chinese has 50,000 characters 5,000 characters to read newspaper 8,000 to read intellectual literature Handwriting is very important to Chinese – actually a work of art