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U.S. Conservatism What was conservative movement’s role in U.S. History?

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Conservatism What was conservative movement’s role in U.S. History?"— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Conservatism What was conservative movement’s role in U.S. History?

2 Final Exam Questions 1. Between 1945 and 2008 the United States conducted several military actions, open and covert, aimed to bring democracy to various world nations. How successful were these democratization projects? Discuss at least two military actions as examples. 2. Many historians consider the civil rights movement the most important social movement in the twentieth century US history. What were its successes and failures? Compare and contrast Martin Luther King's and Malcolm X's views of the civil rights movement as examples. 3. Historians have argued that the feminist movement may have been the most successful of the new social movements of the 1960s. Describe how the women's movement between 1877 and 1960s led up to the rise of feminism, then analyze the achievements and losses of the feminist movement in the 1960s and 1970s. 4. Historians believe that youth culture did not emerge as a major cultural phenomenon in the United States until the post-World War II era. Using at least two examples, explain in what ways youth culture was central to political and economic life in the U.S. in this period.

3 Prosperity > President Calvin Coolidge, 1924

4 Prosperity > Bruce Barton, author of The Man Nobody Knows, here with Hollywood producer Cecil B. DeMille, 1920s

5 Prosperity > Who Prospered in the 1920s? 1200 mergers caused the disappearance of over 600 independent enterprises top 0.1% of U.S. families in 1929 had combined income as large as bottom 42% i. e. approx 24,000 families had combined income as large as 11.5 million poor and lower-class families per capita income in the U.S. rose 9% between 1920-1929 per capita income for the top 24,000 families rose 75% 80% of families had no savings farmers did not prosper - 1/4 of all employment less than 10% invested in the stock market

6 Prosperity > Welfare Capitalism: Shoe Company ’ s Billboard Ad, 1923

7 Prosperity > Comic Strip on Workers Owning Shares, 1929

8 Consumer Culture > Salaries and Prices in the 1920s average US annual salary: $1,236 (approx. $24.00 per week) industrial worker $35.00 per week store clerk $8.00 per week higher salaries but also higher cost of living: $8.00 could by only $3.93 worth of 1914 goods. Ford Model T car: $290 Coney Island roller coaster ride: 15-25 cents (beach was free) movie ticket: 25 cents (up from 5 cents in 1910s) radio set: $25-$100 (making your own was much cheaper)

9 Klan in the 1920s > Timeline of Klan History founded during Reconstruction, collapsed in 1870s revived in 1915 (in part because of the movie Birth of a Nation) resurgence of popularity in the 1920s, but collapsed again by the 1930s again reappears in the 1950s

10 Klan in the 1920s > Poster for the Film The Birth of a Nation by W.G. Griffith (1915)

11 Klan in the 1920s > Washington, D.C. Parade against immigration

12 Klan in the 1920s > Social Movements Supported by the Klan prohibition anti-immigrant sentiments anti-radicalism religious fundamentalism morality and family values

13 Fundamentalism > Timeline Word coined at around 1910 Denotes religious groups that take the Bible literally Popular and active in the 1920s Then the movement retreats from politics until 1980s, in part because of the Scopes Trial

14 Fundamentalism > Church Membership in 1920s

15 Fundamentalism > Actor Lionel Barrymore and Modern Christ

16 Scopes Trial > Cartoon on Evolution

17 Scopes Trial > William Jennings Bryan ’ s Cartoon against Modernity, 1924

18 Scopes Trial > Cartoon comparing Bolsheviks and Scientists, 1925

19 Scopes Trial > Bryan and Darrow

20 Scopes Trial > Bryan as Don Quixote

21 Scopes Trial > Darrow as a Street Player

22 Scopes Trial > Monkeys Vote on Evolution

23 “Un-American!” Washington Post (1938)

24 Anti-Communist Investigations House Un-American Activities Committee established in 1938, focused on influence of Communists in positions of cultural or political power Loyalty-security investigations of federal employees FBI investigations of federal workers, teachers, lawyers (J. Edgar Hoover) 1947: The Hollywood Ten 1948-50: Case of Alger Hiss 1951 McCarron Act - requires communists to regiser their names with the attorney general 1951-53: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted and executed for providing atomic secrets to the Soviets HUAC Loses authority by the 1960s

25 Red Channels

26 The Hollywood Ten

27 Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart, “Hollywood Ten” Hearings

28 Elia Kazan’s New York Times ad

29 Elia Kazan’s Oscar ceremony

30 The Front (1976)

31 Alger Hiss testifying under oath

32 Whittaker Chambers with “Hiss Found Guilty” headline, 1950

33 Congressional Representative Richard Nixon with “Hiss Found Guilty” headline, 1950

34 “The Pumpkin Papers,” Nixon Museum

35 Article in defense of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, 1951

36 The Red Iceberg

37 Is This Tomorrow: America Under Communism

38 Anti-communist comic strip

39 Joseph McCarthy Republican Senator from Wisconsin, elected in 1946 February 1950: speech to Republican Women’s Club in Wheeling, WV--"I have here in my hand a list of 205… names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department." Discredited at the Army-McCarthy Hearings, 1954 Dies in 1957, possibly from alcoholism

40 I Have Here in My Hand…

41 Herbert Block, cartoon, 1950

42 Herbert Block, cartoon about McCarthyism, 1949

43 Was there a communist threat? Russian espionage was on a small scale Soviets were expansionists but internationally US Communist Party small and ineffectual US economy booming Not fear of communists but fear of subversion in general?

44 Congressman A.L. Miller of Nebraska links homosexuality and communism, House of Representatives, 1950 We learned 2 years ago that there were around 4,000 homosexuals in the District. The Police Department the other day said there were between five and six thousand in Washington who are active and that 75 percent were in Government employment. There are places in Washington where they gather for the purpose of sex orgies, where they worship at the cesspool and flesh pots of iniquity. … Their rug and fairy parties are elaborate. So I offer this amendment, and when the time comes for voting upon it, I hope that no one will object. I sometimes wonder how many of these homosexuals have had a part in shaping our foreign policy. How many have been in sensitive positions and subject to blackmail. It is a known fact that homosexuality goes back to the Orientals, lone before the time of Confucius; that the Russians are strong believers in homosexuality, and that those same people are able to get into the State Department and get somebody in their embrace, and once they are in their embrace, fearing blackmail, will make them go to any extent. Perhaps if all the facts were known these same homosexuals have been used by the Communists.

45 McCarthy and his aide Roy Cohn, 1954

46 Victims of McCarthyism Estimated 10,000-12,000 Americans lost their jobs as a result of suspected communist affiliations Estimated 300 authors, actors, directors blacklisted

47 “Communist Front” Organizations National Negro Congress Civil Rights Congress and its affiliated organizations Abraham Lincoln Brigade, George Washington Battalion and other affiliates Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee Russian War Relief International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians, CIO League of American Writers League of Women Shoppers

48 Condemning Girl Scouts of America

49 You Read Books?

50 We’re Hunting Communists

51 Whatever Happened to Freedom from Fear

52 Jackie Robinson Testifying at HUAC

53 Martin Luther King at Communist Training School

54 Khomeini: Spiritual leader, April 8, 1979

55 Jimmy Carter: "It comes out fuzzy," May 21, 1978

56 Ronald Reagan Ad from the 1940s

57 [Cardboard Ronald Reagan], March 5, 1987

58 C.P.O. Graham Jackson mourning the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Warm Springs, Georgia, 1945

59 Ronald Reagan’s radio address, 1983 There's a very famous, very moving photo of Chief Petty Officer Jackson, tears streaming down his face while he played "Going Home" on his accordion as F. D. R.'s body was borne away by train to Washington. Mr. Jackson once said that as he began to play, "It seemed like every nail and every pin in the world just stuck in me." Mr. Jackson symbolized the grief of the Nation back in 1945, and I just wanted his own family to know the Nation hasn't forgotten their personal grief today, 38 years later. As I'm sure Mr. Jackson's family would tell you, in times of sorrow the warmth and support of a family's ties are especially important. I've spoken a great deal about the strength and virtues of the American family. I'd like to return to that topic today, because the family will again be a top priority as we head into the new year—for the family is still the basic unit of religious and moral values that hold our society together.

60 Reaganomics: "The Gods are angry," April 12, 1981

61 Arms payoff for hostage release, November 11, 1986

62 "Speak softly and carry a big stick," December 21, 1986

63 The fall of Berlin Wall, 1989

64 Berlin Wall fragments, Potsdam Plaza

65 Reagan and the Berlin Wall

66 "Our bags are packed"--Weinberger on Star Wars program, January 25, 1987

67 "And we pray that you sinners out there will see the light," May 3, 1987

68 Robert Mapplethorpe’s photographs collection

69 Early rap artist, Grandmaster Flash

70 Grandmaster Flash, “The Message” Lyrics (e.fletcher, s.robinson,, m.glover - Sugarhill records 82) Broken glass everywhere People pissing on the stairs, you know they just Dont care I cant take the smell, I cant take the noise Got no money to move out, I guess I got no choice Rats in the front room, roaches in the back Junkies in the alley with a baseball bat I tried to get away, but I couldnt get far Cause the man with the tow-truck repossessed my car Chorus: Dont push me, cause Im close to the edge Im trying not to loose my head Its like a jungle sometimes, it makes me wonder How I keep from going under

71 Grandmaster Flash, “The Message,”1982

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