Presentation on theme: "The Struggle of Women to become Subjects in the Indonesian Media Wening Udasmoro Universitas Gadjah Mada Indonesia."— Presentation transcript:
The Struggle of Women to become Subjects in the Indonesian Media Wening Udasmoro Universitas Gadjah Mada Indonesia
Media, Women in Indonesia Indonesian media is considered as the freest in Southeast Asia (even in Asia) How is the connection between the freedom of media and the freedom of women in narrating their selves?
Profile of Indonesia Indonesia is an archipelagic country extending 5,120 kilometers from east to west and 1,760 kilometers from north to south It has an estimated 17,508 islands, only 6,000 of which are inhabited Indonesia's total land area is 1,919,317 square kilometers According to 2010 census, Indonesian population reaches: 237,424,363 people More than 85% are officially Muslims
The political powers Sukarno era ( ) Suharto era ( ) Reformasi era (1998-present)
Women Position The position of women in many societies is still marginal, especially in the public sphere. Their position as objects is still flagrantly obvious, even in societies considered to be developed. For women to become subjects, it is not only a question of how women can have representation in parliament or how they can obtain professional positions.
Historically indonesian especially from the mid and high class they can have access to many different position and possibilities. But the question is for whose interest? E.g family planning in Indonesia Regulation about women as member of parliament
Having equal space to express their self- narration is still a luxury for a lot of women. Indonesian women have been struggling to become active subjects, whose narration is recognized by society.
Sukarno’s Era As a country with a majority-Muslim population, since independence in 1945 Indonesian women have been able to vote since the 1st general elections in 1955 Three Women ministers during Sukarno Era ( ) Most of the political parties had their women organisations (Nationalist, communist, religious parties). The communist Party's woman organization was very big and had advanced projects and activities for women
Voice of Women during Old Order Era SK Trimurti (a welknown journalist who became the minister of labour) Criticizing Sukarno’s Poligamy In her journalism, she struggled for women’s education
The regulation in 1940 mentioned that women had right to become member of parliament. They could also enter the public sphere. The question is not just whether they can enter this sphere, but how their narration (as subjects) developed dynamically in the country, under the different regimes (dictatorship and democracy)
This presentation will discuss about how and why women have struggled to become active subjects in the media during the New order Era (1968–1998) and the reformasi era (1998-present). Women’s representation in the media is discussed to illustrate the dynamic development of their self-narration.
Suharto Era and the Domination of State System Suharto Era was a military regime having a structural system for the objective of the national development Women were constructed to be State’s object for national objective Media in Indonesia was dominated by State’s media, especially television (TVRI), films and also the literary products Most of the programs related to women were directed towards national development
Women and their “Dharma” or Contribution to the Nation The domestification of women Their contribution through the women symbolic activities Women are narrated by the State and different social actors through cultural and social systems Women represented by Javanese Women
Contribution of women for development was through domestic and public responsibility However the contribution was dedicated to the husbands
Women as objects of Narration in 1980s
Suharto’s Power and the challenge of women Women became some of the pioneers in challenging Suharto’s power They challenged through literature and also through their presence in the political arena
The Ocean of JILBAB
Women struggle to become subjects in early 1990s
Women’s Struggle Against Authoritarian Regime Portrait of Marsinah as woman from lower social class but challenge the power of the State She became the inspiration of women NGOs to struggle against the social structure and State domination
Struggle during the crisis During the crisis in 1998, Suara Ibu Peduli (the Voice of Women who cares) became one of the most prominent struggles against the state’s power
Women as subjects of narration in 2000 The orientation to struggle change during the reformasi Ayu Utami as inspiration for Indonesian woman to become the subject of narration Woman should be able to talk about their selves, especially about their sexuality
There are dynamics changes of how women are positioned and position themselves in the society The changes of the political regime influence women to narrate the selves in the public arena but the narration of women change also the way how the state position women