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THE COLD WAR HEATS UP. Atomic age  After US dropped the atomic bombs in Japan the Soviet Union wanted to acquire similar weapons.

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Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR HEATS UP. Atomic age  After US dropped the atomic bombs in Japan the Soviet Union wanted to acquire similar weapons."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP

2 Atomic age  After US dropped the atomic bombs in Japan the Soviet Union wanted to acquire similar weapons

3 Marshall Plan  Peacemakers did not want to repeat the mistakes of post WWI era  21 million people were homeless after WWII  20% of Poland's population died  25% of houses in France and Belgium were destroyed or damaged  Industries and transportation were in ruins  Agriculture suffered from the loss of livestock Ex France's damage equaled three times the nation’s income

4 Marshall Plan  The Marshall Plan- called for nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery from the war  United States would support the program with financial aid  America was concerned because communist parties were growing  Feared that the Soviet Union would intervene  U.S. believed that it would promote democracy and open new markets  Soviets were invited to participate in the Marshall Plan  Refused the help and pressured satellite nations to do the same

5 Congress approves  In 1948 Congress approves the Marshall Plan  Became known as the European Recovery Program Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and West Germany  In 4 years the U.S. gave $13 billion in grants and loans  Economies restored  U.S. gained strong trading partners

6 Shipments financed by the Marshall Plan, 1948-1951 ShipmentTotal Value (in millions of dollars) Food, feed, fertilizer3,209.5 Fuel1,552.4 Cotton1,397.8 Other raw materials2,327.6 Machinery and vehicles1,428.1 Other88.9 Total10,004.3

7 The Berlin Airlift  By 1949 Germany was completely divided  The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)  German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Berlin (Germany’s Capital) was located in East Germany and was also divided  Many citizens in communist areas would go to East Berlin and then make their way to West Berlin. From there they would go to U.S., Canada or Western Europe  Stalin did not like this and saw it as a threat

8  Stalin blocked all shipments to West Berlin from the allies  Threatened shortages of food and supplies needed for the 2.5 million citizens  Truman did not want to start a war because of this so he moved supplies into West Berlin by plane  For 15 months more than 200,000 flights were made to deliver food, fuel, and other supplies  At the height 13,000 tons of goods arrived daily  Soviets gave up the blockade in May 1949 and the airlift ended

9 NATO  North Atlantic Treaty Organization  The UN was used to deal with most postwar problems  But the Soviets were often using their veto power  Western Europe felt they needed to look beyond the UN “association of democratic peace-loving states”  U.S., Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal  Agreed that an armed attack against one of them would be considered an attack against all of them.  Soviets responded by creating the Warsaw Pact- military alliance with satellite nations of Eastern Europe

10 Communist advances  Soviets tested an atomic bomb 1949  1950 Truman approved development of Hydrogen bomb- and was tested in 1952  Federal Civil Defense Administration- made plans to protect against nuclear attack

11 The Cold War at Home  Many Americans joined the communist party during the depression  After war most left the party  Growth of communism in the world led to fear of an overthrow of the government  Anyone who was communist or had communist ties were persecuted  Federal loyalty program 1947- all federal government employees were to be investigated and brought before a Loyalty Review Board  The program examined several million employees but only a few hundred were removed from their positions Regardless it added suspicion to the country

12 HUAC  House Un-American Activities Committee  Established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty  Believed that movies had the power to influence the public  Charged Hollywood figures had communist leanings in their filmmaking  They were put on trial in Sept and Oct 1947 “are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?”  Hollywood Ten- refused to answer whether or not they were communist.  Cited for contempt of Congress and served jail time  Blacklists were created to not hire the Hollywood Ten and others who were subversive or opposed the idea of the blacklist

13 The McCarran-Walter Act  Senator Pat McCarran felt that all disloyal Americans were from Communist nations  The law set a quota system for each country that was established in 1924  Discriminated against immigrants from Asia and Southern and Central Europe  This bill was vetoed by Truman because he said it was one of the most “un-American” acts

14 Spy Cases  Alger Hiss was charged for being a communist in the 1930’s and a Soviet spy.  Went to jail for 4 years  Julius and Ethel Rosenberg- members of the communist party were accused of passing atomic secrets to the soviets during WWII.  Convicted of espionage and executed in 1953  Both convictions have been debated for years and caused a people to fear that there were spies in the U.S.

15 McCarthy Era  Senator Joseph McCarthy stated that he had a list of 205 people who were known communists and working for the government.  Sparked an anti-communist hysteria and national search for subversives- Second Red Scare  Anyone who opposed him was considered to be a communist  McCarthy even accused people in the Army as being communist  This led to the Army to charge McCarthy with seeking special treatment for his aide.  The Army-McCarthy hearing began in 1954 The hearing was televised  McCarthy lost most of his followers by the end because he was seen as a bully

16 Arms Race  The United States and Soviet Union were in a constant struggle for world leadership  Each nation wanted to have weapon superiority  Deterrence- policy of making the military power of the United States and its allies so strong that no enemy would dare attack for the fear of retaliation  Between 1954 and 1958- the U.S. conducted 19 Hydrogen bomb tests in the Pacific Ex one explosion was 750 times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Nagasaki. A Japanese fisherman 90 miles away suffered radiation burns

17 Brinkmanship

18 Cold War in the Skies  In order to attack the Soviet Union the United States had to use planes to transport the bombs  The Soviets focused on ICBM’s- Intercontinental ballistic missiles- long range rockets  In 1957 the Soviets used their rockets to launch Sputnik Scared American’s because the rocket could also carry hydrogen bombs  U-2 incident  Soviet used missiles to shoot down an American U2 spy plane over Soviet territory  Americans thought they could not be hit because they were 15 miles high. This hurt American confidence


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