Presentation on theme: "USSR VS USA Communism Government is run by 1 party Socialism-wealth is shared Government controls economics Speech and Press is controlled by."— Presentation transcript:
USSR VS USA Communism Government is run by 1 party Socialism-wealth is shared Government controls economics Speech and Press is controlled by Gov Encourage Equality Encourage work for the community Democracy Political parties compete for control of Gov Capitalism-wealth is kept by those who gain it People make their own economic decisions Freedoms of speech, press Competition Praise Work of individual
Discuss Examples of how we see 4 of the principles mentioned in our everyday lives or in our government
THE COLD WAR
CH 12 Section 1 THE PROGRSSION OF THE US vs USSR After WWII Eastern & Western Allies grew apart. Soviet Union feared capitalist West & Western Powers feared the communists of East. Europe lied in Ruin after WWII
The Alliances split “an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe… in the Soviet sphere and are all subject… to soviet influence…and increasing measure of control from Moscow.” (Winston Churchill) Stalin responded to Churchill’s speech: “Mr. Churchill now stands in the position of a firebrand of war.”
White board What does Churchill mean by an “Iron Curtain”
Soviets control East Soviets forced E. Europe to form communist govts. to form Nations USSR liberated Communist buffer zone along Soviet western border. U.S. promoted democratic & anti- communist nations globally. Nations US liberated Democratic The U.S. and USSRtwo superpowers. distrusted each other = beginnings of the Cold War.
Containment-stop the spread of Communism Truman Doctrine -$ nations to fight communism Civil war broke out in Greece, between communists and anticommunist forces(US Funded). Marshall Plan (U.S. sec of state George C. Marshall) program designed to rebuild prosperity & stability of war-torn Europe with US Money to prevent communist takeover & for humanitarian reasons. USSR & E. European satellite states refused to participate. S.U. proposed COMECON, which failed.
White Board Boys. How are the Truman Doctrine and Marshall plan similar Girls. How are the Truman Doctrine and Marshall plan different
Germany Divided Germany & cap. city Berlin were both divided into four allied controlled zones (U.S, Britain, France & S.U.)
West. powers wanted to unify their 3 zones. Soviets oppose & react blockading West Berlin in attempt to forceentire city under Soviet rule. West. powers responded w. successful Berlin Airlift. 1949, West Germany created (capital = Bonn) and East Germany created (capital = E. Berlin.)
Berlin Wall created 1961 Soviet Leader Nikita Krushchev ordered E. German govt. to build Berlin Wall, to stop E. Berliners escaping into W. Berlin. This symbolized the Cold War.
12.1 B Alliances and Conflicts of the Cold War
China turns Communist In 1949, Mao Zedong’s communist forces won the civil war in China. Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalist forces fled to island of Taiwan.
White Board Why would the US fear China being Communist
THE NUCLEAR AGE & Space Race In 1949, Soviets detonate an atomic bomb Soviets had spies in US Nuclear arms race of M.A.D. had begun! By mid-1950’s both U.S. & S.U. developed H-bombs & I.C.B.M.s In 1957, Soviets beat U.S. into space w. satellite Sputnik (the Space Race had begun.)
New alliances In 1949, military alliance N.A.T.O. was created by west. powers. In 1955, Soviets created Warsaw Pact.(communist block nations) To stem Soviet aggression, U.S. became allied militarily w. 42 nations around world
White boards What 2 events in 1949 caused the US to form military alliances?
Korean War – attempt to spread communism 1950 N. Korea (Communist) pass 38 parallel invade S.Korea UN and US help defend South Gen Mac Arthur leader- (later fired) Soviets support N Korea China- lends 300,000 troops to help N. K. July year war. Border set 38 parallel
White Board What was the goal of the US in the Korean War?
Cuban Revolution Left-wing revolutionary Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Batista and set up a Soviet- supported totalitarian regime. U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy approved secret plan for Cuban exiles to start a revolt vs. Castro at failed mission at the Bay of Pigs in 1961.
Cuban Missile Crisis- close to Nuclear War In 1962, a U-2 American spy plane photographed the building of nuclear missile sites inside Cuba, Kennedy set up a naval blockade of Cuba. Krushchev decided 8 days later to turn back Soviet fleet carrying missiles in return for promise from Kennedy to not invade Cuba. & take missiles out of Turkey D.C. & Moscow set up hotline communications system.
Discuss What advantage would the USSR have in having Missiles in Cuba? Why would the US take missiles out of Turkey as part of the Agreement
Vietnam Conflict France tried to keep colonial hold on Vietnam, but was defeated by forces of Ho Chi Minh. Created N.Vietam(communist) & S. Vietnam(Anti-Communist In 1964, Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson sent large #s of American troops to stop North from Invading South U.S. fears based on domino theory.
White Boards What other nations had similar communist non communist splits?
American Negative opinion of war TV images of war & mounting U.S. casualties produced antiwar movement, espec. among college students of draft age. Richard Nixon won presidential race w. pledge to end U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
Nixon expanded U.S. targets Us bombs neighboring countries Laos Cambodia 1973 a peace agreement w. N. Vietnam had been reached and U.S. withdrew. 1975, Vietnam forcibly reunitedunder Communism. Cambodia & Laos also fell to communists, but domino theory stopped there.
Discuss Why would the US bomb Laos and Cambodia
US befriends China A split between Communist China & S.U. provided opportunity for Nixon to resume relations w. China.
12.2 The Rise of the USSR &Soviet Control Five years after WWII, Russian industrial production surpassed prewar level by 40 percent (fast recovery!) production was targeted for military use (few consumer goods and crowded housing.)
End of Stalin Stalin remained undisputed master USSR became increasingly repressive. A new series of political terror and purges seemed likely, but Stalin’s death in 1953 prevented.
White Boards What are some good things that come with Stalin's death for the Russian People
Nikita Khrushchev emerged as new Soviet leader (de-Stalinization.) began to undo some of Stalin’s abusive policies Khrushchev publicly condemning Stalin for his “violence, mass repression,terror, brutality and his abuse of power.”
Discuss What was Khrushchev's role in the Cuban Missile Crisis
Khrushchev loosened literary controls Allowing publication of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, grim portrayal of Siberian forced labor camp written by Alexander Solzhenitsyn.
Khrushchev Removed Slow industrial production, unsuccessful agricultural policies, Failed focus on consumer production Khrushchev’s reckless plan to place missiles in Cuba Efforts to reduce privileges of Soviet officials, led to removal from office in 1964.
White Board Other names for those Communist Nations in front of Russia.
Soviet Satellite states-Soviet controlled communist states , E. Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland & Hungary, Chechoslovakia Satellite states instituted “five-year plans” of industrialization Collectivized agriculture, eliminated all non-Communist parties & built repressive secret police and military forces.
Discuss What was the reasoning and origins of the soviets taking of the East.
Communist Separate from USSR Albania set up a Stalinist- type dictatorial regime that was NOT a Soviet satellite (allied w. Communist China!) In Yugoslavia, Josip Broz (Tito,) former leader of Communist resistance to Nazis during war, created a Communist govt. that was NOT a Soviet satellite. He ruled until death in 1980.
1956 Hungarian reform crushed E. Europeans resent Soviet dominance Protests and bad economy difficulties led to calls for revolt. Imre Nagy declared Hungary an independent nation in 1956 and promised free elections. Soviet army attacked capital of Budapest, reestablished control and executed Nagy.
Discuss Why would the USSR take such violent actions against Hungary?
1968 Czechoslovakia reform Crushed Their Dictator Antonin Novotny resigned- disliked by entire nation Alexander Dubcek was elected leader & introduced democratic reforms (“socialism with a human face.”) “Prague Spring” of People happy about a new gov. Soviet army invaded Czechoslovakia, crushed reform movement and replaced Dubcek
12.3 The West During the Cold War
White Board What are some nations we consider to be in the West?
France Charles de Gaulle (leader of French Resistance) established 4th Republic. Formed Fifth Republic & a new constitution = more power to president. elected president freed colonies in Africa.(rebellion in Algeria)
France Wanted to be a world Power. first nuclear bomb in Left NATO, feared being controlled by American French economy grew, cars & weapons industry. govt. deficits & rise in cost of living led to unrest. 1968 student protests led to a general labor strike. President Charles De Gaulle resigned (died within a year.)
W. Germany Konrad Adenauerchancellor from gain respect for W. Germany by cooperating w. western powers. Finance minister Ludwig Erhard, key part of “economic miracle.” Unemployment low & needed Erhard succeeded Adenauer continue policies 1969 economic downturn led to rise of SocialDemocratic Party
Great Britain postwar massive economic problems Elected Clement Attlee, Labour Party, new prime minister (beat Churchill & Conserv Party.) passed National Insurance Act & National Health Service Act (for unemployed, sick & elderly.) Socialized medicine and welfare state became model for most European states.(high cost) reduce expenses by dismantling British Empire Colonies given independence. Britain no longer a world superpower.
Germany & Japan “economic miracles:” new factories due to devastation, spent little on military (depended on U.S. for protection), Rebuilt infrastructure, got US aid & had skilled, educated & motivated workers. both import of raw materials & food, export manufactured goods
European Economic Community created free-trade area (no tariffs) in W. Europe. E. E. C. became world’s largest trading bloc,
12.3 The US Cold War Society big increase in role of federal govt Postwar economic boom = After WWII Americans had extra income & desire to buy goods, growth of labor unions brought higher real wages. GI Bill- payed for vets to go to college gaining better jobs
White Board Which groups of Americans did not have the same access to the American dream?
Red Scare- Fear of Communist Red Scare = Soviets built atomic bomb, Communist takeover in China and American fighting N Korea .
McCarthyism Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy Accused American intellectuals, movie stars &military officials. Un true Individuals were blacklisted as “Communist conspirators” (McCarthyism.) U.S. Senate condemned McCarthy in 1954
JFK & LBJ Democratic Presidents youngest and first Catholic president in Assassinated in Dallas, Nov Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson took office and was reelected in L.B.J.’s policies known as the“Great Society”, included civil rights, health care for elderly, programs to combat poverty &federalassistance for education.
White Board What other examples in history are like Mc McCarthyism?
Civil Rights 1950’s 60’s Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public schools was illegal. (Brown V Board of Education African Americans in the south, boycotted segregated buses (Rosa Parks), restaurants & public places. In 1963, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. led a peaceful civil rights march on Washington D.C. “I have a dream.” passive disobedience practiced by Gandhi.
Civil Rights Laws Civil Rights Act in 1964 legally ended segregation & discrimination in workplace & public places. Voting Rights Act in 1965 removed voting barriers vs. minorities in south.
Discuss How has the civil rights movement changed your life?
Assassination that Rock the Nations King’s assassination in 1968 sparked a hundred riots throughout U.S., which in turn led to “white backlash.” Robert Kennedy (brother of JFK), was for civil rights and against Vietnam War. assassinated two months after King.
Protests In summer of 1965, high unemployment led to race riots in which 34 people were killed & buildings were torched in of L.A. 1970, four students killed at Kent State University by National Guard during anti- war protest. Combination of riots and anti-war demonstrations caused many to call for “law & order.” Politics began toshift to political right w. election of Republican Richard Nixon.
Women women traditional roles of homemakers - “baby boom” 40s and 50’s. Late 1950’s Married women returned to workforce. However,women earned less By late 60s, women’s liberation movement. Equal rights Simone de Beauvior The Second Sex, male-dominated societies treated women as second-class citizens
13.1 The End of the Cold War “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” (Pres. Ronald Reagan in Berlin, 1988.) Soviet leader MikhailGorbachev responded, “There is a great thirst for mutual understanding and mutual communication in the world."
Brezhnev (after Krushcev) The Brezhnev Doctrine -S.U. had the right to intervene if communism was threatened in other communist state.
White Board What policy does the same thing but from the Anti Communist perspective
Détente 1970’s more relaxed atmosphere improved relations between U.S. & S.U. two equal in nuclear weaponry S.U. allowed more access to Western literature and culture, allowed for U. S. grain & consumer goods to be sold in S. U.
Discuss What is the meaning of the political cartoon
Soviet Afghan War détente setback when S. U. invaded Afghanistan in Soviets wanted a pro-Soviet regime but U. S. viewed as Soviet expansionism. protest, Pres. Jimmy Carter cancelled US participation in the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow. placed an embargo on shipment of grain to S. U.
Cold War got even “chillier” 80’s Reagan called the S. U. an “evil empire.” Reagan began military buildup, starting a new arms race. military aid to rebels in Afghanistan. By 1980, S. U. was facing serious problems of: poor economy, rise in infant mortality, surge in alcoholism & poor working conditions.
White Board What war can this be compared to and why
Reformer Gorbachev Reformers within Communist party wanted to address these issues, including Mikhail Gorbachev. “perestroika” (restructuring Soviet economy with free enterprise) and “glasnost”(“openness” within S. U. and with rest of world.)
New Soviet Gov Gorbachev established a new Soviet parliament w. elected members, the Congress of People’s Deputies (met in 1989, first time since 1918!)
White Board Which of the three programs do you feel will help the country most and why?
Berlin Wall E. Germany leader, Erich Honecker refused to remove wall. East Germans either fled the country or protested. Honecker step down.
Wall Falls A new East German govt. opened the wall on Nov. 9, 1989 to allow citizens to travel freely between West and Berliners began tearing down the hated Cold War symbol. Huge celebrations broke out throughout Germany. W & E Germany were reunited 1990, Berlin again as its capital.
White Board Which leader could have sent in troops to stop this? Name one past leader that probably would not of allowed this to happen.
The end is Near In 1987, Gorbachev & Reagan reached an agreement on the I.N.F. (Intermediate Nuclear Forces) Treaty ( treaty to reduce # of nuclear) In 1990, Gorbachev - non-communist parties could organize. He abolished the constitutional provision -Communist Party was to have a “leading role” in govt. 1990 Gorbachev became the Soviet Union’s first president (and its last!)
White Board List Communist Bloc Nations that ended communism.
USSR can’t Support communist bloc nations U.S.S.R. wanted to focus resources on social & economic change rather than spending so much on weapons. U.S. wanted to reduce national debt (had become world’s biggest debtor nation, rather than a creditor nation.) Gorbachev stopped giving military support to Communist govts.
White Board What impact does the USSR not giving military support to communist bloc nations
The Fall of Communist East In 1989, a peaceful anti- communist revolutionary movement swept through E. Europe. The reunification of E. & W. Germany in 1990, became a powerful symbol of the end of the Cold War.
USSR BREAKS UP S. U. kept ethnic tensions contained between the 92 different nationalities. nationalist movements emerged in 15 republics of the U.S.S.R.
Possible breakup of S.U. worried hard-line Communists, who attempted a coup in Aug. of 1991 and hadGorbachev arrested. The coup failed when Boris Yeltsin, president of the Russian Republic and Russian Citizens resisted communist rebels
White Board Which of the former ussr states ran the country?
Cold War Over Soviet Union ceased to exist as of Dec, Gorbachev resigned power to Yeltsin. Cold War, had ended! All 15 republics became independent nations, with Russia as the largest. Yeltsin became first freely elected, non-communist leader of Russia, who was committed to creating a prosperous free-market economy.
Russia faced economic hardships social disorder left over from the years of communist rule. Rise in organized crime also created problems of corruption and lawlessness. Chechnya, a province in southern Russia demanded independence. Yeltsin used force to keep Chechnya inRussia. tried to keep E. European states from N.A.T.O.,
Vladimir Putin former K.G.B. officer, was elected president of Russia in He kept tight control of govt.,but was also very popular among citizens
Putin -Chechnya, vowing to return breakaway province to Russian authority. As more Russian troops were sent, rebels became more radical and religious motives became more important(radical Islam and terrorism.) Criticism of Putin’s hard-line position & state-controlled of media, led Putin to crack down on the media. In 2004, Putin proposed that regional leaders be appointed, rather than popularly elected!