Presentation on theme: "U.S. History EOCT test Unit 8 Preparation SSUSH 20."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. History EOCT test Unit 8 Preparation
20a Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy.
Cold War The tension between the United States and the Soviet Union that dominated both nation’s foreign policies and which many feared would lead to war.
“Iron Curtain” Berlin, Germany was divided after WWII into western democracies and Easter Soviet Communist Former Prime Minister Winston Churchill said of Europe, “A shadow has fallen… an Iron curtain has descended across the continent.”
United States Rebuild Europe Ruled by Democracy Private Ownership of Business Free Speech USSR Control Europe Ruled by Totalitarianism Government controlled Business Used Censorship
Berlin Airlift In an effort to stop people from fleeing to west Berlin, Stalin cut the city off by not allowing anyone to enter or leave. Truman did not want war but felt he had to deal with Stalin so he ordered supplies for the East Germans delivered by airplane to be dropped in East Berlin
Domino theory The idea that if one country fell to communism its neighbor would be next.
Containment Policy Origins Recommended by George kennen, diplomat to Soviet union. Implications U.S. should focus on containing communism where it already was (stopping communism from spreading to other countries.) Do not let communism spread further
Marshall Plan Financial plan created by Secretary of state George Marshall that provided the war torn nations of Europe money and financial support to alleviate the suffering of their people. Since Communist revolutions often start during economic hardship the Marshall Plan was actually a weapon used as containment policy.
Truman Doctrine President Harry Truman stated the U.S. intervene and aid other nations attempting to resist Communism.
20b Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China and the outbreak of the Korean War and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy.
New Communist China China fell to Communism when Mao Tse-tung won control of China forcibly removing Chiang Kai-Shek to flee the land in The event left many wondering if containment was working. Mao Tse-tung-- “Communist” Chiang Kai-shek “Nationalist” Pro-American Mao-Zedong
Korean War In 1950, The war began when North Korean forces crossed the 38 th parallel. The UN come to South Korea’s aid. The incident was never a declared war but an incident handled by UN police power.
Fear at home – Red Scare Citizens at home were concerned with the spread of communism possible nuclear war. The built fall out shelters, did school nuclear attack drills. American citizens were convinced by the fall of china, and communist forces moving into Korea were indicators that the Communist were attempting to dominate and take over the world. The government responded by investigating, arresting, and harassing people connected to the Communist Party.
McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy was convinced that Communists had infiltrated high levels of government and the Military. Korean aggression and the fall of china helped McCarthy’s ideas gain popularity McCarthy had to defend his views on television and by 1954 many people labeled him “Crazy” and “Paranoid”
20c Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Cuban Revolution A revolution in the 1950s that took over the government of Cuba and placed Fidel Castro as the new communist leader of Cuba. Important to the U.S. because Cuba is 90 miles South of Florida and the U.S. is trying to Contain Communism.
Bay of Pigs April 17, 1961 a failed attempt by the Kennedy administration to launch an invasion of Cuba by CIA trained anti- Castro Cuban exiles. It embarrassed the Kennedy Administration. Most importantly, it forced Fidel Castro to ask the Soviet Union for help.
Cuban Missile Crisis Fidel allowed Soviets to secretly put nuclear missiles in Cuba– just 90 miles off the coast of Florida. U.S. Spy planes spotted the Missiles in October For 13 days, the world watched as the two superpowers almost had nuclear war. In the end Khrushchev agreed to withdraw in exchange for a U.S. pledge not to invade Cuba and a secret agreement that the U.S. would remove US missiles located in Turkey as Well.
20d Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet Offensive, and growing opposition to the War.
Vietnam War Fighting erupted when Vietnamese nationalists led by Communist Ho Chi Minh wanted independence from France. The U.S. supported the South Vietnamese leader Ngo Kinh Diem and in the early 1960s both sides broke into war for control of Vietnam. Twelve years later the war officially ended in January 1973 when all parties signed the Paris Peace Accords.
Tet Offensive North Vietnamese and Viet Cong launched a major coordinated attack against the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces. Heavy fighting in Saigon, the South Vietnamese capitol. The U.S. and allies turned them back but the incident was televised ending in a psychological victory for the Vietcong. Many people in the U.S. began to question U.S. involvement in Vietnam and whether the U.S. should be there.
Growing opposition to the War College campuses become places of protest against the war. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) demanded the government take radical steps radical steps to deal with poverty, inequality, and to end the war in Vietnam. The organization and others helped create pressure to end the Vietnam war and get the troops home. Kent State University Protest gone violent----
20e Explain the role of geography on the U.S. containment policy, the Korean War, the Bay of Pigs, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Vietnam War.
Containment - Geography Nort
Korean War - Geography North Korea & china were Communist. South Korea was Capitalist. The line of Latitude or 38 th parallel separated the two sections.
Bay of Pigs - Geography Cuba had a Communist Revolution and Fidel Castro gained control. Threatened U.S. because Cuba’s location so close to Florida & USA.
Cuban Missile Crisis - Geography
Vietnam War - Geography Just as in Korea, North Vietnam became Communist. South Vietnam under containment remained Capitalist. Divided at the line of latitude 17 th parallel.
21a Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I and President Eisenhower’s actions.
Sputnik I October 4, 1957 Russian satellite launched into space to transmit messages and other information. Shocked the U.S. because Soviet Union beat them in Technological advancement in Space.
Eisenhower’s response to Sputnik I Signaled a technology gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union On July 29, 1958 the National Aeronautics Space Act created the Government Agency NASA Its goal was to Pioneer the future of space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)