Presentation on theme: "Exploring Nazi Fascism Social 30-2. Question for Inquiry How was fascism in Nazi Germany a rejection of liberalism? Understanding of Fascism- political,"— Presentation transcript:
Exploring Nazi Fascism Social 30-2
Question for Inquiry How was fascism in Nazi Germany a rejection of liberalism? Understanding of Fascism- political, economic, and social factors. – Bottom of page 172
Political Spectrum Look at the political spectrum on the top of page 173. What is the difference between Fascism and Communism?
Fascism Comes from the Italian word fascio, and the Latin word fasces. Means “sticks bundled around an axe”. – Ancient Roman symbol of power and authority. First leader to apply this term to themselves was Benito Mussolini, an Italian dictator.
Fascism Rejected the Communist values of egalitarianism and the empowerment of the working classes. Rejected liberal political ideas and communist economic ideas, while also proposing radical social ideas incompatible with both liberalism and communism.
Fascism Democratic governments seemed weak, unstable, and unable to solve social, economic, and political problems. Fascist viewpoint- society as a whole has a shared purpose. Want their particular nation-state to dominate all other nations of the world.
Fascism Believe that goals can be achieved through discipline, obedience, and the creation of an all-powerful state.
Social Darwinism Origin of Species- Charles Darwin – Proposed that animals evolve through competition and natural selection. – Strongest and fittest survive. Social Darwinism – Promotes the notion that some individuals or groups achieve power and advantage over others because they are stronger and fitter.
Ideologies Associated With Social Darwinism Laissez-Faire Economics – Hands off economics – Businesses compete through competition – Weaker companies die off because they cannot keep up
Ideologies Associated With Social Darwinism Eugenics – Ideology based in the “improvement” of the human race through selective breeding, or genocide. – Promote the reproduction of people with certain traits. – Fascists adopted this policy to justify their discrimination of certain groups.
Germany: How Come Fascism? Economic Problems – Hit hard by the effects of the stock market crash known as ‘Black Tuesday’ – Great Depression hit them especially hard because of the effects of the Treaty of Versailles (page 175) – Extreme inflation cause by great depression also had dramatic results. (page 175)
Germany: How Come Fascism? Political Problems (Weimar Republic) – Rapid inflation, high unemployment – No clear leader or strong leader – Lost support with Germans because they accepted the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
Rise of Hitler National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi’s) – believed that he needed to seize power by force. – Failed, sent to jail. Nazi party was banned. – While in jail, wrote a book on his understanding of Fascism, known as Mein Kampf (My Struggle).
Rise of Hitler Hitler promises to use legal means promote politics, and was released from prison. – Nazi party begins fighting with the Communist party of Germany in bloody street fights.
Rise of Hitler Hitler blamed many people for the downfall of Germany – The Weimar government – Communists – Jewish population – Etc. When a country is in trouble, they are more susceptible to accept blaming others as a valid excuse.
Germany: How Come Fascism? The German people began to look for a strong leader who could fix the country’s problems. – National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi’s) – Hitler elected to lead Germany in The German people began to look for a strong leader who could fix the country’s problems. – National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi’s) – Hitler elected to lead Germany in 1933.
How Did Hitler Gain Power? Jan : Hitler is Chancellor, leader of the democratically elected government. Feb : – Reichstag (parliament building) on fire – Nazi party blamed it on a member of the Communist party – Were able to gain popular vote
How Did Hitler Gain Power? Due to the situation, a quick election was called. – The Nazi’s gained the majority of the seats in parliament. Enabling Act – All political opposition wiped out – Hitler becomes the Absolute leader – No longer a democracy, now a dictatorship – Fuhrer
Nazism Hitler’s own form of Fascism – One superior race, the Aryans Techniques used (page 178): – Propaganda – Youth Movements – Elimination of Opposition – Use of Terror and Force ( SA, and SS) – Scapegoats
Eugenics ‘ Master Race’ of the German people were called upon to rebuild their empire. – The Third Reich – Nazi’s believed that they must get rid of anyone who didn’t uphold Nazi values. – Jews, Roma, homosexuals, mentally and physically handicapped, Blacks, Slovaks, Catholics. ‘ Master Race’ of the German people were called upon to rebuild their empire. – The Third Reich – Nazi’s believed that they must get rid of anyone who didn’t uphold Nazi values. – Jews, Roma, homosexuals, mentally and physically handicapped, Blacks, Slovaks, Catholics.
Techniques of Dictatorships Listed on page 179.
The Totalitarian State: Nazi Germany
Propaganda: Posters Statues Nazi Weddings Rallies/Parades Cartoons Walt Disney - Hitler´s childrenWalt Disney - Hitler´s children Swastikas – Continuity and Rebirth – Black = Power – Red = Blood, symbolized arms and strength and mobility Flags Radio Films – Triumph of the Will (1935) Triumph of the Will
This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. “The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.
Indoctrination: Mien Kampf – Penned in prison becomes the Nazi bible Book burning destroyed any ideas written by others – Freud – Einstein Schools taught Hitler’s ideas – Hatred of Jewish race Reeducation of universities all ‘Jewish’ ideas removed (any books written by or edited by Jewish people were removed) – Aryan Race – Oath of allegiance to Hitler Hitler Youth – Promoted young children into paramilitary clubs – All other youth clubs were illegal – Hitler Youth Hitler Youth Controlled religion – Concordat with the Church – Protestant churches were already supportive – Ultimately Hitler wanted to remove all aspects of religion and replace it with Nazi values
Hearts and Minds:
Use of Force: Brown Shirts SA – Private army (Free Corps) – Storm Troopers Night of long Knives June – Roehm and the SA (Brown shirts) were eliminated – All other political opposition to Hitler were assassinated – Establishes the supremacy of the SS and Himmler Kristallnacht November – Night of Broken glass – State sponsored Terrorism against Germany Gestapo – Special police force who’s primary job was to protect Hitler and the German cause – This branch of the SS wa charged with ensuring that the population was controlled – Eventually they will operate the concentration camps and death camps
Direction of Popular Discontent: Jewish people – Blamed for Germany’s problems Communists – Believed that everyone was equal – This was contrary to Nazi philosophy – Blamed for burning the Reichstag Treaty of Versailles – Germany was defeated in WWI and had to sign this treaty – Stated that Germany was solely to blame for starting the war – Resulted in economic collapse of the German nation Weimar Republic – Signed the Treaty of Versailles
Direction of Popular Discontent:
Controlled Participation: Enabling Act – Only one party allowed in Germany – Nazi Party Huge rallies – Olympics – Military parades Nuremberg Rallies Unemployed went to work – Limited role in government Voting – Only Nazis could vote – Plebiscites for the appearance of democracy Withdrawal of League of Nations Hitler and Hindenburg – Use of force and coercion – Der Fuehrer's Face-1942 Der Fuehrer's Face-1942
Italian Corporate State: Mussolini hoped that through combining both Labor and business interest that he could avoid labor problems When the depression hit Italy the economy was not in a strong position as Mussolini had been liberal with his budgets and was consistently running a deficit Mussolini established state run corporations to control the economy In practice they were not efficient and led to corruption
Nazi Party Leadership Regional Party Leaders Local Party Leaders CONSUMERS German Labour Front National Economic Chamber National Food Estate Regional Chambers of Industry and Commerce Local Chambers of Industry and Commerce Ministry of Economic Affairs Tourist business Industrial firms Commercials firms Banks Insurance companies Energy companies Crafts Farms Foodshops Food distributors Nazi Party Factory Cells
Voters Cabinet Courts Ministers Fuhrer NSDP Reichstag Appointed Judges Appointed Ministers Decide Policy Approve Laws Implement Laws Decided Cases Judiciary Executive Legislature Head of
Hitler’s Economy: Hitler inherited an economy that was close to collapse He was able to turn the German economy around through a series of radical changes National Socialism (Nazi) – Rearmament – Rapid expansion of the military – Stoppage of reparation payments from the treaty of Versailles – Huge public works programs – Establishment of an elite who controlled the economy – Forced labor – Limited consumer goods – Huge increase in Government spending
Chapter 7 Assignment: Communism – ‘Industrialization in Defence’ Page 167 Questions 1-2 – ‘Modern Russian Leader, Valdimir Putin’ Page 170 Questions 1-3 – ‘Knowledge and Understanding’ Page 171 Questions 1-3 Fascism – ‘Hitler on Communism’ Page 178 question 1 – ‘Industrialization and Five Year Plans’ Pages Questions 1-4 – ‘Further Exploration’ Pages 183 Questions 2-4
Why The Right Side Of The Spectrum? Hitler rejected all aspects of liberal views that went against the state. – So why is Fascism on the right side? Because his economic policies were individualist. He believed that economics would be based on individual aspects, as long as it benefited the state.