2Question for InquiryHow was fascism in Nazi Germany a rejection of liberalism?Understanding of Fascism- political, economic, and social factors.Bottom of page 172
3Political SpectrumLook at the political spectrum on the top of page 173.What is the difference between Fascism and Communism?
4FascismComes from the Italian word fascio, and the Latin word fasces. Means “sticks bundled around an axe”.Ancient Roman symbol of power and authority.First leader to apply this term to themselves was Benito Mussolini, an Italian dictator.
5FascismRejected the Communist values of egalitarianism and the empowerment of the working classes.Rejected liberal political ideas and communist economic ideas, while also proposing radical social ideas incompatible with both liberalism and communism.
6FascismDemocratic governments seemed weak, unstable, and unable to solve social, economic, and political problems.Fascist viewpoint- society as a whole has a shared purpose. Want their particular nation-state to dominate all other nations of the world.
7FascismBelieve that goals can be achieved through discipline, obedience, and the creation of an all-powerful state.
8Social Darwinism Origin of Species- Charles Darwin Social Darwinism Proposed that animals evolve through competition and natural selection.Strongest and fittest survive.Social DarwinismPromotes the notion that some individuals or groups achieve power and advantage over others because they are stronger and fitter.
9Ideologies Associated With Social Darwinism Laissez-Faire EconomicsHands off economicsBusinesses compete through competitionWeaker companies die off because they cannot keep up
10Ideologies Associated With Social Darwinism EugenicsIdeology based in the “improvement” of the human race through selective breeding, or genocide.Promote the reproduction of people with certain traits.Fascists adopted this policy to justify their discrimination of certain groups.
11Germany: How Come Fascism? Economic ProblemsHit hard by the effects of the stock market crash known as ‘Black Tuesday’Great Depression hit them especially hard because of the effects of the Treaty of Versailles (page 175)Extreme inflation cause by great depression also had dramatic results. (page 175)
12Germany: How Come Fascism? Political Problems (Weimar Republic)Rapid inflation, high unemploymentNo clear leader or strong leaderLost support with Germans because they accepted the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
13Rise of Hitler National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi’s) 1923- believed that he needed to seize power by force.Failed, sent to jail. Nazi party was banned.While in jail, wrote a book on his understanding of Fascism, known as Mein Kampf (My Struggle).
14Rise of Hitler1925- Hitler promises to use legal means promote politics, and was released from prison.Nazi party begins fighting with the Communist party of Germany in bloody street fights.
15Rise of Hitler Hitler blamed many people for the downfall of Germany The Weimar governmentCommunistsJewish populationEtc.When a country is in trouble, they are more susceptible to accept blaming others as a valid excuse.
16Germany: How Come Fascism? The German people began to look for a strong leader who could fix the country’s problems.National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi’s)Hitler elected to lead Germany in 1933.
17How Did Hitler Gain Power? Jan : Hitler is Chancellor, leader of the democratically elected government.Feb :Reichstag (parliament building) on fireNazi party blamed it on a member of the Communist partyWere able to gain popular vote
18How Did Hitler Gain Power? Due to the situation, a quick election was called.The Nazi’s gained the majority of the seats in parliament.Enabling ActAll political opposition wiped outHitler becomes the Absolute leaderNo longer a democracy, now a dictatorshipFuhrer
19Nazism Hitler’s own form of Fascism Techniques used (page 178): One superior race, the AryansTechniques used (page 178):PropagandaYouth MovementsElimination of OppositionUse of Terror and Force ( SA, and SS)Scapegoats
20Eugenics‘Master Race’ of the German people were called upon to rebuild their empire.The Third ReichNazi’s believed that they must get rid of anyone who didn’t uphold Nazi values.Jews, Roma, homosexuals, mentally and physically handicapped, Blacks, Slovaks, Catholics.
23Propaganda: Posters Statues Nazi Weddings Rallies/Parades Cartoons Walt Disney - Hitler´s childrenSwastikasContinuity and RebirthBlack = PowerRed = Blood, symbolized arms and strength and mobilityFlagsRadioFilmsTriumph of the Will (1935)
30“The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.
31Indoctrination: Mien Kampf Penned in prison becomes the Nazi bibleBook burning destroyed any ideas written by othersFreudEinsteinSchools taught Hitler’s ideasHatred of Jewish raceReeducation of universities all ‘Jewish’ ideas removed (any books written by or edited by Jewish people were removed)Aryan RaceOath of allegiance to HitlerHitler YouthPromoted young children into paramilitary clubsAll other youth clubs were illegalControlled religionConcordat with the ChurchProtestant churches were already supportiveUltimately Hitler wanted to remove all aspects of religion and replace it with Nazi values
33Use of Force: Brown Shirts SA Night of long Knives June 30 1934 Private army (Free Corps)Storm TroopersNight of long Knives JuneRoehm and the SA (Brown shirts) were eliminatedAll other political opposition to Hitler were assassinatedEstablishes the supremacy of the SS and HimmlerKristallnacht NovemberNight of Broken glassState sponsored Terrorism against GermanyGestapoSpecial police force who’s primary job was to protect Hitler and the German causeThis branch of the SS wa charged with ensuring that the population was controlledEventually they will operate the concentration camps and death camps
34Direction of Popular Discontent: Jewish peopleBlamed for Germany’s problemsCommunistsBelieved that everyone was equalThis was contrary to Nazi philosophyBlamed for burning the ReichstagTreaty of VersaillesGermany was defeated in WWI and had to sign this treatyStated that Germany was solely to blame for starting the warResulted in economic collapse of the German nationWeimar RepublicSigned the Treaty of Versailles
36Controlled Participation: Enabling ActOnly one party allowed in GermanyNazi PartyHuge ralliesOlympicsMilitary paradesNuremberg RalliesUnemployed went to workLimited role in governmentVotingOnly Nazis could votePlebiscites for the appearance of democracyWithdrawal of League of NationsHitler and HindenburgUse of force and coercionDer Fuehrer's Face-1942
37Italian Corporate State: Mussolini hoped that through combining both Labor and business interest that he could avoid labor problemsWhen the depression hit Italy the economy was not in a strong position as Mussolini had been liberal with his budgets and was consistently running a deficitMussolini established state run corporations to control the economyIn practice they were not efficient and led to corruption
40Hitler’s Economy:Hitler inherited an economy that was close to collapseHe was able to turn the German economy around through a series of radical changes National Socialism (Nazi)RearmamentRapid expansion of the militaryStoppage of reparation payments from the treaty of VersaillesHuge public works programsEstablishment of an elite who controlled the economyForced laborLimited consumer goodsHuge increase in Government spending
41Chapter 7 Assignment: Communism Fascism ‘Industrialization in Defence’ Page 167 Questions 1-2‘Modern Russian Leader, Valdimir Putin’Page 170 Questions 1-3‘Knowledge and Understanding’Page 171 Questions 1-3Fascism‘Hitler on Communism’Page 178 question 1‘Industrialization and Five Year Plans’Pages Questions 1-4‘Further Exploration’Pages 183 Questions 2-4
42Why The Right Side Of The Spectrum? Hitler rejected all aspects of liberal views that went against the state.So why is Fascism on the right side?Because his economic policies were individualist. He believed that economics would be based on individual aspects, as long as it benefited the state.