Radical Tradition in the Anthracite Molly Maguires, secret organization of Irish- Americans in the anthracite mining districts of Pennsylvania. Its name came from a woman who led an extralegal, antilandlord organization in Ireland during the 1840s, and its membership was drawn from the Ancient Order of Hibernians, an Irish-American fraternal society.
Molly Maguires The movement arose to combat the oppressive industrial and living conditions. Since the police and the forces for law and order were entirely controlled by the mine owners, the Molly Maguires often resorted to intimidating or murdering the police. For several years, especially from c.1865 to 1875, the Molly Maguires dominated the mining industry of NE Pennsylvania.
Socialist Labor Party Daniel DeLeon and US Socialism
Anthracite Breaker Boys The Abuse of Child Labor
Working Conditions in the Mines Low Pay and Long Hours Most anthracite miners worked a 10 hour day before the 1902 Strike. A miner could earn between $40 and $80 a month depending on how many tons were mined.
Immigrants bring Radical Politics to the New World with them Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were two Italian-born American laborers and anarchists, who were tried, convicted and executed via electrocution on August 23, 1927 in Massachusetts for the 1920 armed robbery and murder of two payroll clerks. Today, their execution is considered by some to be a miscarriage of justice.
Some Anthracite Immigrant miners were Socialists Thousands of anthracite miners voted for Socialists like Eugene Debs and Norman Thomas.
Anthracite Miners take in the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia Immigrant miners in NE Penn. takes sides: some supported the Revolution and Bolshevism; most opposed it.
American Political Spectrum Left: Progressives, Liberals, Socialists Values: Equality, Democracy, Community, Social Justice Progressive Era [1900-1917] New Deal/Fair Deal [1932-1952] Great Society [1960s] Obama Era [2008- ? ]
American Political Spectrum Right: Old Right, New Right, Neo-Conservatives, Paleoconservatives Values: Tradition, Self- Reliance, Individualism, Market-Capitalism, Inequality
American Communist Movement began in 1919 Communist Labor Party Led by John Reed
Two US Communist Parties Communist Party Vs. Communist Labor Party Who would be recognized by the Communist International in Moscow?
1921 Merger: Workers Party In 1921, acting on orders from Moscow, the CLP and CP merged to form the Workers (Communist) Party.
Scholarship: US Communism The Cold War School of Historians: John Earl Haynes The Revisionist School of Historians: Maurice Isserman
Academic Journal of US Communism Published by the Tamiment Institute and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives at New York University
Communist Miners and Depression Radical immigrant miners supported Soviet leaders. Lenin/Stalin Third Period Communism [Radical Program] A. Organize the Unemployed B. Fight white racism and for civil rights C. Form separate Communist Unions in all industries [dual unionism]
Communist Dual Union: NMU AFL miners union was the United Mine Workers of America or the UMW led by John L. Lewis The Communist dual union was the National Miners Union