Presentation on theme: "QUESTIONS FOR READING:ch.15, section 1and2 Why is Siberia important? What is Communism and Command Economy? How is it different from our federal system."— Presentation transcript:
QUESTIONS FOR READING:ch.15, section 1and2 Why is Siberia important? What is Communism and Command Economy? How is it different from our federal system and free-market economy? Who was Vladimir Lenin? Who are the Chechens? Why is the Volga important? What is the result of pollution in Russia? Describe Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Russian port cities: Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Vladivostok.
WHY COMMUNISM? WHY DID IT COLLAPSE? WHERE IS RUSSIA TODAY?
THE PLAYERS: The Romanovs Left: Alexander III Below: Nicholas II and family Grigori Rasputin
THE PLAYERS Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Below: Joseph Stalin and Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov or “Lenin” Lego workers, UNITE!!
“Peace, Land and Bread” “All Power to the Soviets” The dictatorship of the Proletariat begins…… Lenin believed Russian peasants had to be trained, tutored before taking over their own country! So a dictator will guide them until they were ready! By 1921 all Russia was under Communist rule. a command economy Top-down control Collective farms food for factory workers Forced migration of people/towns 5-Year Plans system began
COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION Russia was US ally during WWII USSR was America’s main rival for world power from 1949 – 1989. THE COLD WAR! Afghanistan – Downfall of Russia – 1980’s U.S. backed the mujahedin against the Soviets 1985 – New Soviet Secretary – Mikhail Gorbachev called for reforms! Glasnost: Openness – more political freedom and transparency in government Perestroika: restructure the economy to become free market (demand economy)
Gorby extended a hand to Eastern Europe (communist) “I will remove missiles and cease nuclear testing!” Europe felt the winds of change - openness and freedom 1989 – A Watershed Year Berlin Wall torn down Poland had first free elections 1990 – Dismantling of Soviet Union Baltic Republics declared independence! Gorby was challenged by a rival – Wow! Democracy in action! Boris Yeltsin headed a coup to topple Gorby and won!
Yeltsin – the coup is over! Below: Mikhail Gorbachev Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!
1991 – Commonwealth of Independent States replaced the USSR RUSSIA BECOMES A FEDERAL REPUBLIC 1993 – ECONOMIC UNION BETWEEN RUSSIA, CENTRAL ASIA, CAUCASUS REPUBLICS, MOLDOVA, UKRAINE, BELARUS ECONOMY BASED ON EXTRACTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES: copper, nickel, gold, lead, zinc, coal - #2 in world, oil - #8 in world, natural gas - #1 in world; major exporter of steel
BUT NEGATIVE THINGS ABOUT RUSSIA: STILL POOR INFRASTRUCTURE 13% PEOPLE BELOW POVERTY LINE STILL SOME FORCED LABOR OF ETHNIC GROUPS GOVERNMENT STILL TOO INVOLVED IN PRIVATE BUSINESS LITTLE PROTECTION OF PRIVATE PROPERTY GOVERNMENT STILL CORRUPT
19 th Century Social and Political Movements Why? Criticism of working conditions in early factories (industrialism) Criticism of autocracy or unlimited power Socialism: A political theory stating that society should control the means of production – factories and land. Originated in France Communism: A social, political, economic theory that states government should control all means of production and aspects of life. No class distinction or private property. Original idea – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as outlined in the “Communist Manifesto”
Russia’s problem: Backward and weak Need to industrialize. Still an agrarian (farming) economy Solution? Emancipation of the Serfs – 1861 – could leave village, but pay a tax; had to lease land; no education Effect of this action? Dissatisfaction Nobles angry! Lost slaves! Serfs angry! Could not afford to farm, but unprepared for industry! Still Czars would not give up power! No political, economic, social opportunities! Assassination - Radicalism, bombs! Alexander II killed by bomb along with the assassin!
Alexander III – 1866-1894 CRACKDOWN! Alexander III stopped any type of reform to avenge his father and hold on to unlimited power! Russification: Official policy of intolerance and persecution of non-Russian people esp. Jews! Purpose: to fuel nationalism to unite Russian people against radicalism and revolutionaries Calls for reform of the government! The Czar must give up power! We must have a constitution! Call a national congress into session!
Sad reign of Nicholas II – the weak czar Like his father Alexander III Nicholas II would not give up power. Isolated from his people. Sickly son; controlling wife. 1905 Fateful Year Disastrous war with Japan Bloody Sunday – January – massacre at Winter Palace Revolution – some reforms, but not nearly enough Result: non-Russian ethnic groups – angry free peasants – angry urban workers – angry 10 day national strike! Creation of the Soviets!!!
World War I 1914-1918 Russia entered war. Weak military. Czar a poor leader. Russian people tired of war. Perfect time for revolutionaries to call for REVOLUTION. Nicholas II forced to give up his power! Provisional government takes over; calls for elections – this had never happened before. November 1917 the Bolsheviks under Lenin win elections. New communist government began to take form!
IMPERIAL vs. COMMUNIST RUSSIA : A COMPARISON Imperial or Czarist Government: autocrat; unlimited power Social structure: Czar, Nobles, small middle class; free peasants, SERFS Religion: Eastern Orthodox Education: no public; < ½ of population literate Communist or Soviet Government: dictatorship; one party rule - Communist Social Structure: No different classes! At top – Communist party elite members Religion: NONE Education By 1939 over 81% of population literate