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Mike Stein Emeritus Professor. Aim of the presentation To explore comparative policy, practice and conceptual issues arising from four research samples.

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Presentation on theme: "Mike Stein Emeritus Professor. Aim of the presentation To explore comparative policy, practice and conceptual issues arising from four research samples."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mike Stein Emeritus Professor

2 Aim of the presentation To explore comparative policy, practice and conceptual issues arising from four research samples ( ) 9 European countries: France; Germany, Ireland; Netherlands; Norway; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland, and the UK (Mapping exercise, Stein and Munro (Eds.) 2008) 14 Post-communist European and Central Asian societies: Albania; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Georgia; Hungary; Kyrgyzstan; Poland; Russian Federation; Romania, and Uzbekistan (Mapping exercise: Lerch and Stein 2010) 5 European and post-communist societies: Albania; Czech Republic;, Finland and Poland (Peer research approach, Stein and Verweijen- Slamnescu 2012) 5 Post-communist European and central Asian societies: Armenia; Belarus; Kazakhstan; Latvia, and the Ukraine (Mapping exercise 2014)

3 Outline of presentation Patterns and issues arising from: o Type of placements and quality of care o Age and patterns of transition o The legal and policy framework for preparing and supporting young people after care o Official data and research Contextualising leaving care policy: implications of different ‘welfare regimes’ for leaving care policy using Esping- Andersen’s typology: o Conservative o Social democratic o Liberal Final reflections and discussion points

4 Types of placements and quality of care European countries: patterns o Family foster care – use of specialist ‘treatment’ foster care o Variation in use of kinship care o Small children’s homes – mainly for older young people (aged 12 plus) o Residential homes and centres for older young people – social pedagogy Post-communist countries: patterns o Large institutional care – wide age range o Young people under Guardianship in kinship care o Less use of family placements – SOS ‘foster care’ villages and foster care projects (third sector)

5 Types of placements and quality of care In European countries: issues o Prevention, foster, residential, kinship care and adoption – ongoing debates o Quality of care placements and outcomes o Participation of young people In post-communist countries: issues o De-institutionalisation programmes - lack of family based care offering attachments and individual care o Preventing children entering institutional care o Reduction in abuses and violations of rights o Increase participation of young people

6 ‘Offering individual care’ 6

7 Age and patterns of transition European societies: patterns o Age range 15-21, most leave between years of age o In comparison with normative transitions (young people in the general population) the pattern is accelerated and compressed o Leaving care younger and coping with changes in a short time o Less supported and linear – ‘yo-yo’ pattern in general population Post-communist societies: patterns o Age range , young people remain in care longer if they stop in education, most vulnerable leave earlier o In comparison with normative transitions the patterns are extended and abrupt – not knowing when they are leaving o Unprepared and unsupported from large institutions

8 Age and patterns of transition European societies: issues o Opportunities for young people to ‘stay put’ in placements o Staying in placements until 21 and ongoing support to 25 in some countries o Replicate more normative transitions Post-communist societies: issues o Linked to wider de-institutionalisation programme – Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children o Better preparation and planning of transitions – more involvement of young people, knowing their plans o Provide more support after care

9 ‘More support after care’ 9

10 Legal and policy frameworks for preparation and after-care support European countries: patterns and issues o Preparation and after-care support may be part of either general child care legislation or specialist ‘leaving care’ legislation o Pattern and recommendations - to move to more specialist provisions which are ‘legal duties’ and less ‘permissive’ o Extend the age and range of legal provisions to support young people Post- communist countries: patterns and issues o Preparation and after-care support mainly part of general child care legislation and ‘permissive’ o Recommendations to strengthen the law – more specialist o Better policy co-ordination between central and local services

11 Official data and research European countries: patterns and issues o Variation in the range and quality of official data collection – some collected at A ‘national’ level and some at a ’local’ or ‘subunit’ level o In most countries some research has been carried out – variation in the range and type of studies carried out o Research generally shows poor outcomes for care leavers although some do well, others get by and others do very poorly, compared with normative outcomes Post-communist countries: patterns and issues o Some official data – in some countries no data on care leavers o Very little research – some included in studies of other vulnerable young people o Recommendations for ‘better official data’ and, o Monitoring of outcomes and more research

12 Contextualising leaving care policy Policy development influenced by many factors - Esping- Andersen proposed a typology taking into account the political context in which social policies develop in different countries Each Country assessed and classified on 2 main criteria o Whether services were provided as a ‘right’ to enable sustaining a living without participation in the labour market (’decommodification’) o Whether a country promotes social solidarity and reduces inequality Countries welfare regimes were identifies as: » Social democratic – high on both criteria » Liberal – low on both criteria » Conservative – in the middle

13 Contextualising leaving care policy The Welfare Regimes of European countries Social DemocraticConservative Liberal NetherlandsFrance Switzerland NorwayGermany SwedenIreland Spain United Kingdom There are also country specific issues and tendencies – reflecting history and culture

14 Contextualising leaving care policy The Welfare Regimes of European countries Social Democratic – expect highest levels of provision for care leavers Specialist legal framework for care leavers a more recent development as ‘universalism’ – non stigmatising provision for all young people as distinct from specialist groups – central to the social democratic model Conservative – Germany and Spain no specialist legislation whereas UK and France had specialist provision Liberal – Switzerland no specialist provision Also the issue of whether the legal framework is a ‘duty’ or ‘permissive’ - Ireland (Conservative) had ‘specialist’ permissive legislation

15 Contextualising leaving care policy The Welfare Regimes of post-communist European countries Esping-Andersen envisaged the transition of post-communist countries would lead to the adoption of one of the 3 main welfare regimes, in part driven by potential or actual membership of the European Union This has been challenged by other academics from post- communist societies who have identified the impact of both internal and external forces (including the EU, UNCRC and UNICEF) and have proposed: Former USSR Post-communist European Post-socialist welfare Developing states

16 Contextualising leaving care policy The Welfare Regimes of post-communist Central Asian countries Esping-Andersen’s typology is based largely on western models of welfare In Asian and Eastern societies values of family solidarity, independence through labour market participation, assistance from family and non-governmental sources (influenced by Confucian ideas and values) Different from statist economic model underpinning Esping- Andersen

17 Final reflections: mapping and peer research Challenge of de-institutionalisation in post-communist countries; use of ‘under Guardianship’ in kinship care; lack of preventative services Use of foster care in European countries but also positive contribution of residential care for teenagers - using social pedagogy and ‘treatment’ approaches In European and post-communist societies transitions from foster or residential care to adulthood doesn’t reflect normative transitions – extended, supported, non-linear In some European and most post-communist societies lack of specialist legislation and duties for supporting young people after they left care and involving young people In the European countries there was more evidence of the collection of official data and research than in post-communist societies – although still a long way to go!

18 ‘Involving young people’

19 Final reflections: contextualising leaving care Esping-Andersen’s typology is ‘limited’ in its application to European countries and relevance to both post-communist European and Central Asian societies Does not accommodate the balance between universalism and specialist policies in meeting needs of vulnerable groups? Development of new post communist identities –’struggle’? Imposition of ‘western’ models of welfare on central Asian societies? Contribution of United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) - Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children: o Progress and problems of implementation Where next? o Further mapping and peer research – extend to other countries and; o Re-think conceptualisation – challenges of comparative work, globalisation

20 Research references Stein M (2014) Young people’s transitions from Care to Adulthood in European and Post-communist Eastern European and Central Asian Societies, Australian Social Work, Vol Stein M and Verweijen-Slamnescu R (2012) When Care Ends, Lessons from Peer Research, insights from young people on leaving care in Albania, the Czech Republic, Finland and Poland, SOS Children’s Villages International Stein M (2010) Conclusion, From Care to Adulthood in European and Central Asian Societies, in Lerch V with Stein M (eds.) Ageing Out of Care, from care to adulthood in European and Central Asian Societies, SOS Children’s Villages International Stein, M and Munro, E. (eds.) (2008) Young People’s Transitions from Care to Adulthood: International Research and Practice, Jessica Kingsley On de-institutionalisation Save the Children (2014) Child Care Institutions: A Last Resort, Policy Brief On globalisation Pinkerton J (2011) Constructing a global understanding of the social ecology of leaving out of home care, Children and Youth Services Review, 33 (12)


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