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REBIRTH AND REVOLUTION: NATION-BUILDING IN EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC RIM.

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Presentation on theme: "REBIRTH AND REVOLUTION: NATION-BUILDING IN EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC RIM."— Presentation transcript:

1 REBIRTH AND REVOLUTION: NATION-BUILDING IN EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC RIM

2  The Pacific Ocean is the center of world today  Mediterranean Sea was the ocean of the past  Atlantic Ocean was the ocean of the present: 1450 – 1945  Pacific Ocean is the ocean of the future  1970 – 1982: US trade with Europe was up 400%  Same time period US trade with Asia Pacific was up 800%  Key Players  China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong  United States, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Chile  1 st Economy of the World: US  2 nd Economy of the World: China  3 rd Economy of the World: Japan  High technology, consumer electronics, computers, and automobiles  Major financial investment of US, China, Japan in each other, region  Impact on Region  Technology has hurt small producers, traditional markets  Shift of industry, agricultural production around Pacific  Massive immigration of Asians to the United States, Canada, Australia, Latin America  Threats to Prosperity  Warfare and conflicts: Korean War, Vietnamese War  Potential for conflict between China and Taiwan

3  Japan emerged from World War I as a world power  Plans to acquire Chinese, Russian territory frustrated by US, UK  Signed treaty with United States guaranteeing China's integrity  Participated in the League of Nations but often neutral or hostile  Japanese economy boosted by war: sold munitions to Allies  Prosperity short-lived  Economy slumped during Great Depression  Labor unrest, demands for social reforms  Massive earthquake in 1920s hit Tokyo  Political conflict emerged  Between internationalists, supporters of western-style capitalism, nationalists  Much hostility to foreign influences by nationalists  Attempt to build large navy stopped by Washington Naval Accords  Army increasingly involved in governmental affairs; many young officers seek change  The Mukden incident, 1931, in Manchuria  Chinese unification threatened Japanese interests in Manchuria  Japanese troops destroyed tracks on Japanese railroad, claimed Chinese attack  Incident became pretext for Japanese attack against China  Military, acting without civilian authority, took all Manchuria by 1932  Japanese dictatorship  Emerged in the 1930s with dominance of government by military  Many of the same trappings of fascism: nationalism, militarism, tradition  Plans drawn up to conquer, control Asia-Pacific led to World War II  Defeat in World War II led to US occupation under Douglas MacArthur

4  Post-1945 World War II Asia Pacific  Civil War in China between Nationalists and Communists  War in Indo-China between French and Viet Minh (Nationalists, Communists)  War in Indonesia between Dutch and Indonesian Nationalists  US troops in occupation of Japan  The Korea War,  Korea divided at 38th parallel  U.S. ally in south: Republic of Korea under Syngman Rhee  Soviet ally in north: People’s Democratic Republic of Korea under Kim Il-Sung  North Korean troops crossed 38th parallel, captured Seoul, June 1950  U.S. and UN troops pushed back North Korean troops to Chinese border  Chinese troops came in, pushed U.S. forces, allies back in the south  Both sides agreed to a cease-fire in July 1953, again at 38th parallel  Globalization of containment  Western fears of international communism must be contained  Creation of SEATO, an Asian counterpart of NATO  “Domino theory": if one country falls to communism, others will follow

5  US occupation of Japan began an economic recovery  US role  Broke up Zaibatsus, established base rules for capitalism, rebuilt industries  Established democracy, pressed for female suffrage, abolished state religion  Postwar Japan  Had few resources, no overseas empire  Benefited from U.S. aid, investments  Did not have a large defense budget because of US protection; money to industry  Government dominated by Liberal Democrats who cooperate with businesses  Japan's "economic miracle"  Japan  Pursued export-oriented growth supported by low wages  Began with labor-intensive exports, textiles, iron, and steel  Government supported incentives for trade, innovation, experimentation  Government sponsored research, development for businesses  Companies took care of workers, families with cradle to grave support  Reinvested profits  In capital-intensive industries such as cars, aircraft, shipping, electronics  In technology-intensive production such as telecommunications  Rapid growth, 1960s-1980s; Suffered recession in 1990s

6  The Little Tigers  In beginning: Four Tigers – Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan  Followed Japanese model of export-driven industry  In 1980s rapid growth; by 1990s highly competitive  Industrial wealth, capitalism, trade led to democratization, pressure for reform  Stressed group collectivism and cooperation, limitations on dissent  Relied on government support of economic system  Korean Economic Miracle  Generals tended to dominate politics until the 1980s  During this time supported industrialization and economic growth  Began with cheap consumer goods  Built up a trained industrial force of workers  Corporations Hyundai and Daewoo and Samsung  Became a newly industrializing nation by 1980s and strong economic force  Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia are now joining these nations

7  The republic, after 1911  Revolution did not establish a stable republic; China fell into warlords' rule  Through unequal treaties, foreign states still controlled economy of China  Growth of Chinese nationalism  Chinese intellectuals expected Paris Peace Conference to end treaty system  Instead, Paris treaties approved Japanese expansion into China  May 4 TH Movement: Chinese youths, intellectuals opposed to imperialism  Some were attracted to Marxism and Leninism; CCP established in 1921  CCP (Chinese Communist Party) and Guomindang (The Nationalist Party)  CCP leader Mao Zedong advocated women's equality, socialism  Guomindang leader Sun Yat-sen favored democracy and nationalism  Two parties formed alliance, assisted by the Soviet Union, against foreigners  Nationalist China  Civil war after death of Sun Yat-sen, 1925  Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi, Mao launched Northern Expedition to reunify China  Successful, Jiang then turned on his communist allies in 1928  After 1928 spent most of time fighting communists, warlords  Mao emerged as the leader of CCP, developed Maoist ideology  , CCP retreated to Yunan on the Long March to avoid Nationalists  China was mostly peasants: Maoism taps peasants as revolutionary strength  Sets up a peasant commune, state in Northern China, land reform  Nationalists vs. Communists vs. Warlords vs. Japanese

8  Origins of Communist China  Civil war between nationalists and communists resumed, 1945  Communists armed, supported by USSR  Mao Zedong proclaimed People's Republic of China, 1949  Social and economic transformation of China  Political reorganization dominated by Communist Party, Chairman Mao  Suspected nationalists were executed or sent to forced labor camps  Five-Year Plan stressing heavy industry  Massive land redistribution at village level  Collective farms with basic health and primary education  Emancipation of women: divorce, abortion, footbinding finally ended  Fraternal cooperation between China and Soviet Union  Both communist; shared common enemy, the United States  Alarmed by U.S. support of Japan, south Korea, and Taiwan  Beijing accepted direction from Moscow in early 1950s  USSR gave military-economic aid, helped seat China on UN Security Council  Cracks in alliance began in late 1950s  USSR gave more economic support to noncommunist countries  Both nations openly competed for influence in Africa and Asia  Rift between the two nations was public by the end, 1964  Taiwan (Republic of China)  Outmaneuvered, the nationalists under Jiang Jieshi fled to Taiwan in 1948  Taiwan protected by the US, develops modern industry, major world trading nation  Increasing tensions for reunification with China

9  Mao reunified China under communism  People’s Republic declared in 1949  Annexed Tibet in 1949; border conflicts with India  Supported Communists in Korea, Vietnam, SE Asia  Intervened directly in Korean War to prevent American victory  Great Leap Forward ( )  Effort to catch up with industrial nations  Modeled after Soviet 5 Year Plans but included grandiose, weird ideas  All land collectivized; farming and industry became communal  Agricultural disaster; great famine followed,  Great proletarian cultural revolution,  To root out "revisionism," revitalize the revolutionary fervor  Students became the instruments of revolution against old, elite  Idea was that revolutionary fervor as communist better than science, expertise  Millions subjected to humiliation, persecution, and death  Educated elites targeted; setback for Chinese education and science  Deng's revolution  Deng Xiaoping regained power in 1981; opened China to foreign influence  Welcomed economic, market reforms; remained politically authoritarian  Crushed pro-democracy student demonstration in Tiananmen Square, 1989  Hong Kong returned to China in 1997: how to absorb democratic city?  The rise of China since the death of Mao Zedong  Late 1970s opened China to foreign investment and technology  Gradual shift from planned communist economy to market economy  Offered vast, cheap labor and huge domestic markets  China joined WTO in 2001

10  1914 – 1940  French Indochina: Annam, Tonkin, Cochin China, Cambodia, Laos  Dutch (Indonesia), US (Philippines), UK (Malaya, parts of Borneo, Singapore)  Independent Siam (Thailand): border state between French, British  1940 – 1945  Japanese occupy whole area within first weeks of World War II  Controlled areas through puppet regimes while exploiting the resources  End of war saw English, French, Dutch determined to restore their colonies  US grants Philippines independence  Vietnam  Fighting the French in Vietnam  Japan's invasion ended French rule; Ho Chi Minh declared independence  France reasserted colonial rule, recaptured Saigon and south Vietnam, 1945  Retook north by bombing Hanoi and Haiphong; killed at least ten thousand civilians  Ho and followers (Viet Minh) conducted guerrilla warfare from the countryside  Aided by Communist China, Viet Minh defeated the French in 1954  Geneva Conference and partial independence, 1954  Vietnam temporarily divided, north and south, at 17th parallel  South Vietnam's leaders delayed elections, feared communist victory  US supported first the French, then the unpopular government of South Vietnam  North Vietnam received assistance from USSR and China  Cold war stalemate : The Vietnam War until 1975  Nationalist-communist (Viet Cong) attacks on government of South Vietnam  President Johnson launched bombing campaign, sent ground troops in 1965  U.S. troops were trapped in a quagmire; dragged on until 1973


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