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US Policy 1 “ a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma” ~Winston Churchill (describing Soviet foreign policy) Foreign Policy 2.

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Presentation on theme: "US Policy 1 “ a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma” ~Winston Churchill (describing Soviet foreign policy) Foreign Policy 2."— Presentation transcript:

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2 US Policy 1

3 “ a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma” ~Winston Churchill (describing Soviet foreign policy) Foreign Policy 2

4  Definitions  Foreign Policy  National Security Strategy  Policy Influences  Executive Branch  Legislative Branch  The American People Overview 3

5  Foreign Policies  Isolationism  Imperialism  Pacifism  UN Cooperation  Containment  Post Containment  Preemptive Strike  National Renewal and Global Leadership Overview 4

6  The goals and guidelines that shape the conduct of American relations with other nations  How we interact with other countries politically! US Foreign Policy 5

7  Guidelines for the protection of the nation’s people and territories against physical assault, and protection of vital economic and political interests, the loss of which could threaten fundamental values and the vitality of the nation.  How we interact with other countries militarily! US National Security Policy 6

8 NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY + FOREIGN POLICY = 7

9  The Executive Branch  The Legislative Branch  The American People Policy Influences 8

10  The Executive Branch  The President  The State Department  The National Security Council (NSC)  The National Security Advisor (NSA) Policy Influences 9

11  The Legislative Branch  Congress can: Declare war Raise and maintain the military Power of the purse Treaty ratification Presidential appointees Policy Influences 10

12  The American People  Public opinion Uninformed public Informed public Effective public  Interest groups  The press Policy Influences 11

13  Isolationism  Imperialism  Pacifism  UN Cooperation  Containment  Deterrent Strategies  Post-Containment Era Foreign Policies 12

14  New nation  Still in turmoil internally  Physical separation  Neutrality & Non-Entanglement  Europe in violent times  Very dependent on European trade  Monroe Doctrine Isolationism (1796) …served us well for a century 13

15  Social Darwinism (by Europe)  Colonialism race  United States “expanded overseas” Hawaii, Guam, Philippines, Puerto Rico  Panama Canal…rebellion against Columbians  Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine  “Moral right & obligation to intervene in Latin America” to protect/restore interests Imperialism (1893) …Set the stage for WWI 14

16 Imperialism (1893) 15

17  World War I  20 million people lost their lives  “War to end all wars”

18  United States emerged as world’s most respected country  Treaty of Versailles sought to punish Germany  League of Nations…discuss & settle disputes and not to resort to war…United States rejected  Neutrality acts/Kellogg Peace Pact…outlawed war as legitimate instrument of national policy  United States cut many ties to Europe Pacifism (Post WWI) 17

19  Harsh reparations on Germany  Great Depression  Lack of treaty enforcement Lack of political will Setting the stage for WWII... 18

20  The next war to end all wars  Beginning of the atomic age  Over 40 million more die! World War II 19

21  Had full political backing of United States and USSR…but competition  Stressed “open communication” among nations…international cooperation would preclude war UN Cooperation (Post WWII) During this same period… 20

22  Soviet Union  Poland, Baltics, Eastern European bloc  Instigated communist rebellions elsewhere  China falls to Communism  Serious blow to US relations Communist Expansion …United States felt the need to stop Communist expansion 21

23  Reasons for expansion  Communist doctrine “Capitalist pigs”  World War II  China’s government had poor admin control Communist Expansion 22

24 “Let every nation know…that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty” ~ President J. F. Kennedy (inaugural address, 1961) Communist Expansion 23

25  United States had to stop Soviet expansion  Marshall Plan (1947)  Berlin Airlift (1948)  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)  Significantly rebuilt Europe  Countries able to resist communist expansion  Korea  Third World nation stalemated us!  Altered US foreign policy… Containment 24

26  Focus on technological and strategic superiority  Use nuclear weapons “at a time & place of our choosing”  Launch of Sputnik and ICBM in 1957  America shocked  America’s age of innocence was over  America changed its deterrent policy once again... Massive Retaliation 25

27  Soviet military capabilities  Expanded alliances in Pacific region  ANZUS Pact (1951)  Japan (1954)  Tactical nuclear weapons  Countered being outnumbered conventionally  Main reason USSR kept in check?  Support SE Asia from communism domino theory Graduated Response …Graduated Response still relied heavily on nukes 26

28  Respond to any level conflict…  Restructure conventional forces  Green Berets and Dual Basing  Reconstruct airlift and sealift  Mutually Assured Destruction  …No one wins a nuclear war Flexible Response Then comes Vietnam… 27

29 “…the United States will participate in the defense and development of allies and friends, but… America cannot—and will not—conceive all plans, design all programs, execute all the decisions, and undertake all the defense of the free nations of the world.” ~ President Richard Nixon (18 Feb 1970) Realistic Deterrence/ Nixon Doctrine 28

30  Essential Equivalence basic nuclear strategy  Soviet nukes bigger and outnumbered ours, but ours more accurate  Total Force concept to policy  Active duty, National Guard, Reserves  Trained nations to fight, loans, foreign aid  No Troops Realistic Deterrence/ Nixon Doctrine Watergate…President Carter…Iranian Hostage Crises… 29

31  More outspoken about dislike of communists and USSR…“Evil Empire”  Military rebuilt  Increased pay raises  New weapon systems  Security Assistance Programs increased  Third World help…stop communist assistance  Allies shouldered more responsibility for own defense Contemporary Containment/ Reagan Doctrine (1981) End of cold war… 30

32  Warsaw Pact crumbling  Berlin Wall coming down  Countries asserting independence from USSR… World started to change in 1989… …leads us to today 31

33  To enhance America’s security  To bolster America’s economic prosperity  To promote democracy and human rights abroad Post Containment Era: A Strategy of Engagement 32

34 “Our Nation’s cause has always been larger than our Nation’s defense. We fight, as we always fight, for a just peace—a peace that favors liberty. We will defend the peace against the threats from terrorists and tyrants. We will preserve the peace by building good relations among the great powers. And we will extend the peace by encouraging free and open societies on every continent.” ~ President Bush (West Point, New York, 1 June 2002)  The “Bush Doctrine”  Signaled a new focus on security by U.S. Preemptive Strike Era 33

35  Key Aspects  Championing human dignity  Strengthening alliances to defeat global terrorism  Preventing our enemies from threatening us with weapons of mass destruction  Expanding the circle of development by opening societies and building the infrastructure of democracy  Transforming America’s national security institutions to meet the challenges and opportunities of the twenty-first century Preemptive Strike Era 34

36  Advancing our Interests  Security  Prosperity  Values  International Order National Renewal and Global Leadership Era “More than at any point in human history—the interests of nations and peoples are shared. …religious convictions…can forge new bonds among people, or tear us apart. …technology…can light the path to peace, or forever darken it. …energy…can sustain our planet, or destroy it.” ~President Barack Obama (United Nations General Assembly, 22 Sep 2009) 35

37  The security of the United States, its citizens, and US allies and partners. Accomplished through:  Strengthening Security and Resilience at Home  Disrupting, Dismantling, and Defeating Al-Qa’ida and its Violent Extremist Affiliates in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Around the World  Using Force  Reversing the Spread of Nuclear and Biological Weapons and Securing Nuclear Materials  Advancing Peace, Security, and Opportunity in the Greater Middle East  Investing in the Capacity of Strong and Capable Partners  Securing Cyberspace Security 36

38  A strong, innovative, and growing US economy in an open international economic system that promotes opportunity and prosperity. Involves:  Strengthening Education and Human Capital  Enhancing Science, Technology, and Innovation  Achieving Balanced and Sustainable Growth  Accelerating Sustainable Development  Spending Taxpayers’ Dollars Wisely Prosperity 37

39  Respect for universal values at home and around the world.  Strengthen the Power of Our Example  Promote Democracy and Human Rights Abroad  Promote Dignity by Meeting Basic Needs Values 38

40  An international order advanced by US leadership that promotes peace, security, and opportunity through stronger cooperation to meet global challenges.  Ensure Strong Alliances  Build Cooperation with Other Twenty-First Century Centers of Influence  Strengthen Institutions and Mechanisms for Cooperation  Sustain Broad Cooperation on Key Global Challenges International Order 39

41  Definitions  Policy Influences  Foreign Policy  Isolationism through Containment  Deterrent Strategies  Massive Retaliation through Contemporary Containment  Foreign Policies ( ?)  Post Containment Era  Preemptive Strike Era Overview 40

42 ANY QUESTIONS? 41

43  UCC Briefs for 28/30 Sep Homework 42


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