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The Cold War that would change the future of warfare forever.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War that would change the future of warfare forever."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War that would change the future of warfare forever

2 2 Types of War  Hot War: full scale warfare; opponents have deployed troops and peace through compromise is unlikely  Cold War: opponents do not fight directly but through “client states” Only cold war in history: 1945-1980

3 Long Term Causes AMERICA Capitalist economy Democratic government Free elections Personal freedoms/freedom of the press Survival of the fittest USSR Communist economy Autocratic government (dictatorship) Lack of/fixed elections Suppression/censorship by secret police Everybody helps everybody

4 Short Term Causes  American fear of communist attack  Truman’s dislike/distrust of Stalin  America’s secrecy involving atomic secrets  Russia’s fear of nuclear weapons  Russia’s hatred of capitalism  Russia’s expansion west in Europe  Both sides desire to spread their form of government  Conflict in Germany, especially Berlin

5 The Road to War Yalta Conference End of WWII conference with Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill Key Points: a) Germany and Berlin>divided into 4 zones, b) Poland (which was at time under control of Red Army) was to become a free and democratic nation, c) Russia would have “buffer” of friendly nations to ensure protection Conflict By end of WWII Stalin broke promises, was forcing communism on all west provinces except Yugoslavia Poland-Red Army ensured fixed election, communists won

6 Berlin Airlift Germany-> divided into 4 zones U.S., Britain, France united their parts; Marshall Aid helped German’s in their section prosper again Russia wanted to keep Germany poor to reduce threat of future war Problem: German’s in Soviet zone could see prosperity other Germans were experiencing

7 Stalin (Russian leader) ordered closing of all roads, rails, & canals entering West Berlin Solution: America took hold of the one route not closed: the skies Hundreds of planes flew food and essentials into West Berlin (very expensive Soviets did not dare shoot down American planes; were still a threat because of A-bomb Soon after, roads re- opened

8 Korean War Divided in half (U.S.S.R.=North, U.S.=South) each half wanted to conquer other Communist China fought to overtake South Korea armed by Soviet Union U.N. Security Council sent in troops (mainly American) led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur, an American

9 MacArthur launched attack on North Korea against orders Forced China to retaliate->caused a stalemate very high in casualties Stalin died 1953 & Pres. Truman replaced by Eisenhower-helped peace talks Armistice signed 1953 *First war fought using client states!*

10 Suez Crisis Israel: new Jewish nation created from Palestine, backed by Americans Egypt: leading Arab nation; very poor but contains valuable Suez Canal owned by Britain and France Conflict between Arab nations (Egypt) and Israel For support, Egypt looked to the USSR

11 1956 new Egyptian leader Nasser nationalized canal, angered Britain and France Tension grew between Egypt and Israel, and Egypt and Britain and France-> all three countries attacked Soviets began pumping money into Egypt However nuclear warfare was avoided because America declined to intervene in war

12 The Berlin Wall After Berlin Airlift, allied zones united in Germany West Germany (allied zone) much more prosperous, East German’s began moving to West Germany through Berlin 1961: 1/6 of population of E. Germany left Khrushchev had to take action: determined an overnight plan

13 August 13, 1961-East German and Russian “shock workers” erected barbed wire fences along Soviet border August 16- barbed wire replaced with 4 m high, 111 km long concrete block wall Manned by 300 watch towers, 190 people shot dead attempting to escape Russian authorities called it a “protection barrier” Stood as symbol of the suppression and brutality of a communist state

14 Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962, the world came dangerously close to nuclear war. Cuba was a communist country and the Soviet Union had installed missiles in Cuba. These missiles could attack most major American and Canadians cities. The U.S. demanded the Soviet missiles be removed and blockaded the shipment of Soviet military equipment to Cuba.

15 Canada’s Position The U.S. requested that Canada's Bomarc missiles be armed with nuclear warheads. Prime Minister Diefenbaker accused the United States of pressuring Canada. He also accused Liberal leader Pearson of flip-flopping on the issue of nuclear arms. Pearson had opposed nuclear missiles in Canada, but in 1963 decided that Canada had an obligation to accept them. After Pearson was elected as Prime Minister in 1963, the Bomarc missiles were armed with nuclear warheads. The issue highlights the controversy in Canada over fears of nuclear attack on the one hand, and the desire for a strong anti-nuclear policy on the other.

16 Vietnam War Before WWII, Vietnam had been part of French Empire After WWII, North Vietnam given to non-communist China, South Vietnam to France China pulled out of North Vietnam, and communist Ho Chi Minh took over 1946-France decided to take over North Vietnam by fighting the Viet Minh- was backed by Americans 1954-Geneva Conference-world’s powers decided to divide Vietnam along 17 th parallel Ngo Dinh Diem led South, Ho Chi Minh the North

17 Ngo Dinh Diem hated communism therefore had support of America Poor record for human rights Viet Cong (North) guerilla tactics were effective despite America’s $1 billion/day war effort Also, Viet Minh gaining support amongst people in the south By 1968, American support for war waning; North was willing to have peace talks

18 Very slow progress made over 5 years Ho Chi Minh wanted all foreigners out, wanted Vietnam accepted as united country 1969, Nixon agreed to reduce troops from 350 000 to 40 000 Without major American troops, South Vietnam could not support its cause Jan. 1973, a cease-fire agreed to, Americans told to pull out Soon after, North squashed the South; Vietnam united as a communist country

19 The Arms Race  1949-U.S.S.R. explodes atomic bomb  1952-U.S. develops hydrogen bomb and B52 long range missile  1953-Russia explodes hydrogen bomb  1957-Russia launches Sputnik, world’s first artificial satellite  In response, America built Defense Early Warning (DEW Line) system around arctic, and launched Explorer I  1960s-Russia spent money building as many bombs as possible, America spent money building fewer better quality bombs

20  1967-Communist China explodes H-bomb  During the 1960s, the concept of Mutually Assured Destruction developed  The number of nuclear missiles available to each side, and the guarantee of a reaction for every action, ensured that any deployment of a bomb would mean destruction for both sides In 1967… NATO Troops: 2.6 million Tanks: 13 000 Artillery: 10 750 Warsaw Pact Troops: 4 million Tanks: 42 500 Artillery: 31 500

21  1981-USA had 8 000 Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, USSR 7 000 ICBM’s  1981-USA had 4 000 planes that could drop an atomic bomb, USSR had 5 000  At this point all 3 powers (America, the Soviet Union and China) were willing to work towards détente  China was worried because it had fewer weapons than America  USA was prepared to find better ways to deal with communism, and did not want to spend even more money after the Vietnam War  USSR was spending so much money on artillery that the standard of living was falling far below normal

22 Afghanistan Afghanistan, a middle eastern country, was in midst of civil war Hazifullah Amin ( Prime Minister):supported communist government, but wanted to become more Western Outraged Afghans as most were very religious and communism rejects religion Thousands joined Mujahdeen, a guerilla force

23 Russians entered Afghanistan to support communist gov’t Mujahdeen saw this as invasion 1979-Russians shot Amin and replaced him with Babrak Kamal 1982-75% of Afghanistan controlled by Mujahdeen, Kamal only in power because of Soviet military backing U.N. condemned invasion from 1980, but Russia ignored them America banned exporting grain to Russia, stopped SALT talks and boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympic games Soon, Gorbachev took out Russian forces; war was too costly (Russia’s Vietnam War)

24 Why did it End?  Afghanistan: drained money from the Soviet economy, and the defeat dampened public support  Arms Race: almost bankrupted the USSR, money that should have been spent on necessities was being spent on military equipment  Mikhail Gorbachev: came to power in the USSR in the mid 1980s, was determined to end foreign policy burdens and rebuild the Soviet economy

25 1985: Gorbachev and President Regan begin summit talks 1987: agree to eliminate an entire class of nuclear missiles 1989: USSR pulls troops out of Afghanistan; Eastern countries elect democratic leaders & communism falls; Berlin Wall is torn down 1990: Germany once again a unified country 1991: Soviet Union dissolves

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