Cold War Define Cold War State of hostility without military conflict between the U.S. and Soviet Union post WWII A. War of words, competition, ideology, technology B. Different intentions on how to Politically and Economically rebuild Europe C. No actual fighting
It’s 1949 – my 70th birthday. Let me tell you what’s been happening since the war. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were already part of the USSR, then at Yalta we managed to get parts of Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia - about 25 million more comrades! I think it’s very important that our neighbors are communists. Goal: To convert as many weak Third World countries in the area to communism as possible Enemy: Capitalism
War of Ideology Define a belief system that attempts to explain the world and how to change it A: Communism vs. CapitalismCommunism vs. Capitalism B. Can not Co-exist economically C. Iron CurtainIron Curtain created a single region based on political and economic characteristics
Chuck Norris; You can’t Stop him, you can only hope Contain To Contain him
It may be impossible to stop communism now. Instead we must contain it. We can do this with Money and Democracy. If we help countries fight poverty, hunger, and desperation than they will not look to communist pigs for assistance Define: Plan: A.Truman Doctrine-
During the years between 1945 and 1950, the period directly following World War II, the Soviet Union expanded its influence in Central and Eastern Europe. Describe the major concerns the United States had about this expansion and actions taken to counter Soviet activities in Europe during this time period. Objectives :
Containment in Action Truman DoctrineTruman Doctrine Marshall PlanMarshall Plan Define: U.S. Policy to supply economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII A.Expansion of the Truman Doctrine B.U.S. fears other weak, poor countries will fall C.U.S. Fears loss of trade if Europe falls to communism.
Division of Germany Define: Post WWII Germany was divided into 4 Sections A.Russia suffered most deaths in WWII and lead invasion into Berlin –wanted it all B.US, France, G.B. got West, Russia got East part C.To prevent Russia from controlling all of Berlin’s resources it was divided also
Berlin: “an island of democracy surrounded by a sea of Communism.”
Berlin Blockade Define: Stalin’s attempt to force the Allies to give up their part of Berlin A.Cut off all transportation to West Berlin B.Held the city Hostage until Allies gave it up
Berlin Airlift Define: Allied Effort to bring food and supplies to West Berlin A.Lasted 327 Days B.278,228 flights C.one of the greatest humanitarian events in history saved over 2.5 million people without firing a single shot.
Arms Race Define: Massive build up of military resources and WMD’s A, B, & C Pick any of the facts on the next page Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. “Nuclear bombs on rockets”
1950’s, American Intelligence estimated that in a Russian missile attack, 20 million Americans would die and 22 million would be injured. 1960’s, –the Russians put their money into producing more missiles regardless of quality while –America built fewer but better quality missiles - the Atlas could go 5,000 miles at a speed of 16,000 mph. By 1961, there were enough bombs to destroy the world. –First Polaris submarine was launched carrying 16 nuclear missiles. Each missile carried four warheads which could targeted on different cities; hence one submarine effectively carried 64 nuclear warheads. 1981, USA had 8,000 ICBM’s and USSR 7,000 ICBM’s USA had 4,000 planes capable of delivering a nuclear bomb. Russia had 5000. USA defense spending for 1981 = 178 billion dollars. By 1986, it was 367 billion dollars. 1986, it is estimated that throughout the world there were 40,000 nuclear warheads - the equivalent of one million Hiroshima bombs. British Intelligence estimated that just one medium sized H-bomb on London would essentially destroy anything living up to 30 miles away. 1989-1990’s presidents Reagan and Gorbachev started real progress in the cut in nuclear weaponry
QofD 2/28/11 A. What trend is represented in the chart? B. What can be the cause of this trend?
YOUTUBE BONUS Go online and select a Youtube video about the Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, Space Race, Cold War Red Scare (McCarthyism) Video must be at least 5-10 min Take one page of notes and include –Author of video –Summary of Topic being covered –1 Thing you already knew –Most interesting thing you learned –Your assessment of the video
NATO Define: NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1954) a. “Collective Security” b. Linked U.S. and Western Europe so no one could be attacked or singled out.
Warsaw Pact Define: Military alliance to defend any Communist country. a. Opposite of NATO
Space Race Define: The war for knowledge of outer space between the U.S. and USSR. a. “New Frontier”
Sputnik b. The USSR launched the first satellite into outer space. c. Caused USA to step up its space program
BONUS http://youtube.com/watch?v=l2ZyeG4tdOQ Define: The closest the world has come to nuclear war was in Oct. 1962 A.1959 U.S. failed attempt to overthrow Castro in the Bay of Pigs B.Nikita Khrushchev (S.U.) allied with Fidel Castro and promised him missile bases for protection. – spread comm. Near U.S.
Cuban Missile Crisis C.14 Day Standoff to remove the missiles
Goal “non-dot” Form as large a group of “non-dot” students as possible “dot” Largest group of students without a “dot” member will win points “dot” Entire group will loose if there is one “dot” member in your group “dot,” Because everyone will deny they are a “dot,” you must look for students who, by any indication, seem suspicious. “dot” If you suspect a classmate has a “dot” it is your duty to call them out “dot” members, you can earn points by being the only “dot” member in a group Those with “dots” must convince others that you do not have a “dot”
The Second Red Scare Define : Fear of communism spreading into the U.S. a. Remember Palmer Raids? our government infiltrated b.1950’s Red Scare: People believe that our government has been infiltrated by Communist Russians (USSR). purge c.We must purge them from power
McCarthyism Define: Attempt by Senator Joseph McCarthy to purge the government and society of communist. a) States adopted Loyalty Oaths for teachers and government officials b)HUAC b)HUAC: House Un-American Committee- Investigated government workers and the movie industry c)Asked: “Are you now, or have you ever been a supporter of communist?”
The Hollywood Ten Define: 10 witnesses from the film industry who refused to testify against people who were suspected of being communists in Hollywood - sent to prison. A.) Labeled 5th Amendment Communist B) Blacklists - A list of about 500 writers, actors, and producers- not allowed to work on Hollywood films because they “allegedly” were communists. C) Challenge to 1 st Amendment Rights
McCarthy’s Blacklists A list of about 500 writers, actors, and producers- not allowed to work on Hollywood films because they “allegedly” were communists.
-April 1949- "You read books, eh?" During the postwar anti- communist campaign hundreds of elementary and high school teachers were investigated and lost their jobs, sometimes as a result of being named by proliferating "anti-subversive" groups and individuals. Some individuals compiled and circulated their own blacklists, which were accepted by frightened employers and casting directors who feared being blacklisted themselves if they sought facts and fair play. The motives of some self- serving or vindictive accusers were summed up by Herb Block in a phrase: "If you can't crush the commies, you can nail a neighbor."