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The COLD WAR, 1945-1991 Part I, 1945-1964. Causes of the Cold War: 1.Sovietization, 1944-48 A.Stalin’s security concerns B.Ideological goals 2. Truman.

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Presentation on theme: "The COLD WAR, 1945-1991 Part I, 1945-1964. Causes of the Cold War: 1.Sovietization, 1944-48 A.Stalin’s security concerns B.Ideological goals 2. Truman."— Presentation transcript:

1 The COLD WAR, Part I,

2 Causes of the Cold War: 1.Sovietization, A.Stalin’s security concerns B.Ideological goals 2. Truman doctrine, 1947-> A.Containment (announced March 1947) B.Marshall plan (European Recovery Program): Total: $13.3 billion

3 THE SOVIET BLOC

4 Czechoslovakia President Edvard Benes –May 18, 1945, returns after seven-year exile Klement Gottwald, leader of Czechoslovak Communists Red Army occupied the country May 26, 1946, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia received 2,695,293 votes: 38.7 percent of the total Gottwald became premier CPC got key ministries, but non-communists had a majority in parliament But non-communists not really united

5 Czechoslovakia (cont.) Stalin insisted that the country refuse the Marshall Plan February 1948: non-communist ministers resign over communist police forces during election (Gottwald did not) March 10, 1948: Jan Masaryk (Foreign Minister) found dead at ministry (murder or suicide) May 30, 1948: Communists win an absolute majority Gottwald new president At Stalin’s insistence, Gottwald imposes a Soviet style constitution Communist Party replaced the government

6 Berlin Blockade and Airlift,

7 Berlin Blockade and Airlift (cont.) Western Allies (USA, GB, France) united their occupation zones June 1948: New German mark introduced Stalin ordered blockade of roads and rails US and GB created airlift: To May 1949: 278,228 flights 2,326,406 tons of food, coal, other necessities

8 1949: Communism spreading Soviets removed opposition in eastern Europe Soviets exploded first atomic bomb Chinese revolution NATO founded, 1949 to present

9 The Soviet Bloc not monolithic Josip Broz a.k.a. TITO (r ) Yugoslavia Non-alignment

10 Korean War, Two rival governments: North: Soviet-supported Kim Il-Sung’s communist government South: US-supported anti-communist, autocrat Syngman Rhee United Nations resolved to allow a US-led “police action”

11 Korean War, ,574 Americans killed 175,000 South Korean soldiers killed 215,000 North Korean soldiers killed 114,000 Chinese soldiers killed 315 Soviet soldiers killed About two million Korean civilians killed or wounded

12

13 1953: Stalin died

14 Power struggle, 1953 Presidium, “collective leadership” Lavrentiy Beria, Vyacheslav Molotov, Georgy Malenkov, Nikita Khrushchev, June 1953: Beria arrested 1956: Malenkov lost to Khrushchev “Virgin Lands” proposal

15 Nikita Khrushchev (r ) Enthusiastic open-minded mercurial 1956: 20th CPSU Congress  Peaceful co-existence  Secret Speech “The Thaw” or De- Stalinization, GULAG dismantled But… Smashed Hungarian revolution of 1956: –2500 Hungarians killed –13,000 wounded

16 Khrushchev’s internal reforms Agriculture: “Virgin Lands” Housing crisis: Khrushchovka 1957: B. Pasternak, Doktor Zhivago Nov. 1962: A. Solzhenitsyn, One day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Persecuted Orthodox Churches, from 15,000 (1951) to 8000 (1963). Allowed some displaced peoples to return, but not Crimean Tatars.

17 Nikita Khrushchev (r ) Warsaw Pact formed, 1955 Sino-Soviet split (1960): –Mao “Galoshes” –Nikita the “Bull” U-2 incident (May 1960) –Pilot Gary Powers August 1961: Berlin Wall constructed. Oct. 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis June 1963: “hot line” Aug. 1963: Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT)

18 Berlin Wall,


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