Presentation on theme: "Spanish Politics and Society Hispanic & European Studies Program Fall 2009 Raimundo Viejo Viñas Office 20.182"— Presentation transcript:
Spanish Politics and Society Hispanic & European Studies Program Fall 2009 Raimundo Viejo Viñas Office
Democratization in Spain An empirical case
Democratization in Spain In the 1960s and the early 1970s, the Spanish political regime liberalised: Consumption and mass tourism changed Spanish mentality into a more modern, liberal one Fraga’s Press Law made possible a broader pluralism The liberalization of Francoism divided the political establishment and its opponents
Democratization in Spain The political establishment splited in two different factions: hardliners and softliners Hardliners (the so-called “bunker”) opposed democratization. Franco’s Prime Minister, Carrero Blanco, was the most prominent hardliner of the political regime Softliners wanted a slow, moderated, and controlled democratization of the political regime. First democratic Prime Minister, Adolfo Suárez, was a reformer
Democratization in Spain Democratic opposition also splited in two factions: Reformers were those who wanted to change the system step by step). Jordi Pujol, the conservative catalan nationalist leader and former president of Catalonia was a reformer. Radicals were those who wanted to change the political regime through an accelerated transition process, whether they were revolutionaries or not. ETA probably is the most extreme case.
Democratization in Spain The assassination of Franco’s prime minister, Carrero Blanco in 1973, prevented the involution of liberalization November 20, 1975: Franco is dead, transition to democracy begins
Democratization in Spain After Franco’s Dead in 1975, King Juan Carlos I became head of the state. Between January and July 1976 the Monarchy was ruling Spain According to Franco’s Law of 1966, the Ley Orgánica del Estado ("Organic Law of the State"): the Consejo del Reino ("Council of the Kingdom") proposed three candidates to the King. Arias Navarro was selected by Juan Carlos as the new Prime Minister
Democratization in Spain In July 1976, Adolfo Suárez was appointed Prime Minister. During this first government, Suárez will… … enact the Political Reform Law (september 1976) … began talks with major leaders of political opposition … change the relations with the military … face up to the resurgence of terrorist activity and armed struggle
Democratization in Spain December 15, 1976: The Political Reform Law is ratified by a referendum The rate of participation is 77.72%. 94% of voters give their support to the law PSOE and PCE opposed the Political Reform Law. The PCE was still illegal. Elections are scheduled for June However, it remains unclear whether all parties will be able to take part (i.e the PCE and other leftists parties)
Democratization in Spain Once the Political Reform Law passed, the legalization of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) was the most controversial issue The PCE was the most important party organization of the political opposition. It had more activists that all other opposition parties together. The militant discipline was very appropriate to fight illegal. The point, however, was if the PCE was able to win free elections The PCE, like the French, Italian, and Portuguese Communists parties defined themselves as “Eurocommunists” (condemned the Soviet intervention in Prague and Budapest )
Democratization in Spain First pluralistic elections were held on June 15, 1977: Union of the Democratic Center (UCD-Unión de Centro Democrático): 34.61% Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE-Partido Socialista Obrero Español): 29.27% Communist Party of Spain (PCE-Partido Comunista de España): 9.38% Popular Alliance (AP-Alianza Popular): 8.33% In Catalonia and the Basque Country, moderate nationalists won an important support. The reform of the State’s territorial structure becomes an important issue A big majority of voters supported center-right (reformers) and center-wing (softliners) parties
Democratization in Spain The Cortes began to draft a constitution in the summer of In 1978 an agreement amongst politicians, political parties, and trade unions to plan how to operate the economy during the transition was passed. It was the “Moncloa Pact” The Spanish Constitution was finally approved in a referendum on the December 6, 1978.