Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1960 What were the Cold War fears faced by the American People, and how successfully did the Eisenhower Presidency.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "President Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1960 What were the Cold War fears faced by the American People, and how successfully did the Eisenhower Presidency."— Presentation transcript:

1 President Dwight D. Eisenhower What were the Cold War fears faced by the American People, and how successfully did the Eisenhower Presidency address them?

2 Communist Home

3 NATO Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb…..Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb….. The question is raised, where did they get the technology the bomb? Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would be accused of giving away atomic bomb secrets. Charged with espionage they would be found guilty and executed in Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb…..Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb….. The question is raised, where did they get the technology the bomb? Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would be accused of giving away atomic bomb secrets. Charged with espionage they would be found guilty and executed in 1953.

4 House Committee for Un-American ActivitiesHouse Committee for Un-American Activities red scare3 HUACHUAC committee warned of civil rights violations. Witnesses who refused to answer were cited for contempt of Congress. 1950–77, Congress and FBI investigated Americans suspected as communists McCarran Act Internal Security Act of 1950 All communists were to register and groups to give lists of members

5 red scare3 In 1948, Whittaker Chambers made accusations of Soviet espionage against former State Dept. official Alger Hiss Hiss found guilty of spying & sentenced to 10 yrs in prison Richard NixonHUACRichard Nixon, Congressmen from California was part of the HUAC that investigated Alger Hiss. In 1948, Whittaker Chambers made accusations of Soviet espionage against former State Dept. official Alger Hiss Hiss found guilty of spying & sentenced to 10 yrs in prison Richard NixonHUACRichard Nixon, Congressmen from California was part of the HUAC that investigated Alger Hiss. Alger HissWhitaker ChambersRichard Nixon

6 Hollywood Ten.1947 investigation led to prison sentences for contempt known as the Hollywood Ten. Blacklisted:Blacklisted: a list of persons who are under suspicion, disfavor, or censure, or who are not to be hired, served, or otherwise accepted. Hollywood Ten.1947 investigation led to prison sentences for contempt known as the Hollywood Ten. Blacklisted:Blacklisted: a list of persons who are under suspicion, disfavor, or censure, or who are not to be hired, served, or otherwise accepted. red scare3

7 Red ScareRed Scare was Americans response to the fear of Communism Joseph McCarthySenator Joseph McCarthy accused 205 US Govt. officials of being Communist. McCarthyismMcCarthyism to destroy or assassinate one’s character without proof and it ruined the careers of many Americans. red scare witch hunt loyalty oath Became a witch hunt that led to Americans pledging a “loyalty oath” to the United States…….

8 Communist Fears Abroad

9 Containment Policy Developed by State Department assistant, George Keenan, NSC-68 Argued that the SU was trying to do two things: defeat capitalism, & expand the Soviet sphere of influence. US would stand firm, restrict and halt Soviet and Communist expansion. Containment Policy Developed by State Department assistant, George Keenan, NSC-68 Argued that the SU was trying to do two things: defeat capitalism, & expand the Soviet sphere of influence. US would stand firm, restrict and halt Soviet and Communist expansion. How? Help countries who were threatened by Communism with financial and economic assistance, propaganda, politically and militarily. Adopted by President Truman in Opposite of Appeasement….. Confront dictators How? Help countries who were threatened by Communism with financial and economic assistance, propaganda, politically and militarily. Adopted by President Truman in Opposite of Appeasement….. Confront dictators

10 1946 March Churchill’s Iron curtain speech

11 NATO Mao Tse Tung, defeats Chang Kai Shek in the Chinese Civil War….. China became a communistic country. Chang Kai Shak is exiled to Taiwan. Mao Tse Tung becomes the Communistic leader of China. US believed there was a communistic plot to rule the world Mao Tse Tung, defeats Chang Kai Shek in the Chinese Civil War….. China became a communistic country. Chang Kai Shak is exiled to Taiwan. Mao Tse Tung becomes the Communistic leader of China. US believed there was a communistic plot to rule the world Mao Tse Tung Chang Kai Shek

12 1950 to 1953, North Korea invades South Korea. North Korea was a communist nation and South Korea was a democracy. “containment”First war of “containment” policy to stop communism “Police Action”“Police Action” not a declared war President Truman leads United Nations. General Douglas MacArthur commands US and UN troops. Called “forgotten war” to 1953, North Korea invades South Korea. North Korea was a communist nation and South Korea was a democracy. “containment”First war of “containment” policy to stop communism “Police Action”“Police Action” not a declared war President Truman leads United Nations. General Douglas MacArthur commands US and UN troops. Called “forgotten war”.

13 Berlin Blockade & Airlift June 24, 1948 – May 12, 1949 immediate cause of the blockade was the introduction of a new currency to the Western zones the real issue was the reunification of Germany especially vulnerable-deep within the Soviet zone

14 Background to the War zThe French lost control to Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu zPresident Eisenhower declined to intervene on behalf of France.

15 Formation of NATO Europeans became increasingly wary of Soviet intentions after the Berlin Blockade April 4th, 1949 the NATO treaty was signed. The United States, Canada, Britain, France, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal and the Netherlands signed. Greece and Turkey joined in 1952 and West Germany in 1955.

16 Nukes and the Space Race

17 NATO Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb…..Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb… Soviets detonate their first Hydrogen bombSoviets detonate their first Hydrogen bomb Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb…..Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb… Soviets detonate their first Hydrogen bombSoviets detonate their first Hydrogen bomb

18 Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

19 1957 Russians launch SPUTNIK I Facts on Sputnik Aluminum sphere, 23 inches in diameter weighing 184 pounds with four steel antennae emitting radio signals. Launched Oct. 4, 1957 Stayed in orbit 92 days, until Jan. 4, 1958 Facts on Sputnik Aluminum sphere, 23 inches in diameter weighing 184 pounds with four steel antennae emitting radio signals. Launched Oct. 4, 1957 Stayed in orbit 92 days, until Jan. 4, 1958

20 Effects on the United States Americans fear a Soviet attack with missile technology Effects on the United States Americans fear a Soviet attack with missile technology Americans resolved to regain technological superiority over the Soviet Union In July 1958, President Eisenhower created NASA or National Space and Aeronautics Agency >National Defense Education Act > National Defense Education Act Americans resolved to regain technological superiority over the Soviet Union In July 1958, President Eisenhower created NASA or National Space and Aeronautics Agency >National Defense Education Act > National Defense Education Act 1957 Russians launch SPUTNIK I

21 Atomic Anxieties: “Duck-and-Cover Generation” Atomic Anxieties: “Duck-and-Cover Generation” Atomic Testing: Between July 16, 1945 and Sept. 23, 1992, the United States conducted 1,054 official nuclear tests, most of them at the Nevada Test Site. Atomic Testing: Between July 16, 1945 and Sept. 23, 1992, the United States conducted 1,054 official nuclear tests, most of them at the Nevada Test Site. Americans began building underground bomb shelters and cities had underground fallout shelters. Effects of Sputnik on United States

22

23 Missile Gap the presumed strategic disparity between the Soviet Union and the United States believed to have been created by the USSR's technological achievements in the late 1950s.disparity The missile gap became an important political issue, with critics charging that President Dwight D. Eisenhower had allowed the Soviets to gain a dangerous military advantage over the United States by refusing to spend enough money on missile programs.Eisenhower The missile gap was a myth. Eisenhower had explained that there was no gap, but many doubted the president's claims. Concerns over the missile gap did not recede until after October 1961, when members of the Kennedy administration declared that the United States possessed overwhelming military strength.recede

24 Agricultural overproduction, low prices Older industrial areas decline recession slows decade’s economic growth Economic Concerns

25 Eisenhowers Responses

26 Communist Home Ike was privately critical but did little to destroy McCarthy Republicans used McCarthy in 1952 election McCarthy brought himself down Continued loyalty program

27 Communist Fears Abroad

28 Eisenhower & Dulles 1.Mutual security agreements. 2.Massive retaliation. 3.M. A. D. 4.“Domino Theory” 5.CIA & covert operations 6.Eisenhower Doctrine 1.Mutual security agreements. 2.Massive retaliation. 3.M. A. D. 4.“Domino Theory” 5.CIA & covert operations 6.Eisenhower Doctrine “Brinksmanship” [John Foster Dulles]

29 Stalin’s Death (1953) – Khrushchev (1956): “peaceful coexistence” Hungarian Revolt (1956) Suez Canal Crisis (1956 to 57) Sputnik (1957) Second Berlin Crisis (1958) – Khrushchev: “We will bury capitalism” U-2 Incident (1960) Support for Castro in Cuba (1959)

30 The Suez Crisis:

31 Cold War continues with propaganda radio broadcasts

32 Cold War continues with the Soviets also using propaganda radio broadcasts

33 Mad Magazine makes fun of the Cold War with their Spy vs. Spy column. CIA vs. KGB

34 The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister }Promised free elections. }This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.

35 U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.

36 U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower admitted on May 7 that the unarmed reconnaissance aircraft was indeed on a spy mission.U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower admitted on May 7 that the unarmed reconnaissance aircraft was indeed on a spy mission. In response, Khrushchev cancelled a long-awaited summit meeting in Paris,In response, Khrushchev cancelled a long-awaited summit meeting in Paris, Powers was sentenced to ten years in a Soviet prison for his confessed espionage.Powers was sentenced to ten years in a Soviet prison for his confessed espionage. year-and-a-half later, on February 10, 1962, the Soviets released him in exchange for Rudolph Abel,year-and-a-half later, on February 10, 1962, the Soviets released him in exchange for Rudolph Abel, Led to the Berlin Wall being built and the Cold War “heating up again”Led to the Berlin Wall being built and the Cold War “heating up again”

37 Ikes Responses Ike moderate support for space race Huge impact of Sputnik forced hand Federal program to build bomb shelters/ Duck and Cover program for schools US supplying missiles to Britain and NATO allies NASA (1958) and Explorer I MAD. Mutually Assured Destruction

38 Responses to the Economy

39 Domestic Policy Balanced, moderate “Bland leading the bland” Overall, a time of prosperity New Deal a part of modern life Expands farm aid, Social Security, housing, health services Highway Act of ,000 miles of interstate highways linking major cities Improve national defense Good for jobs, trucking Bad for the poor, public transportation

40

41 Eisenhower's Farewell Address We now stand ten years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations. Three of these involved our own country. Despite these holocausts America is today the strongest, the most influential and most productive nation in the world. Understandably proud of this pre-eminence, we yet realize that America's leadership and prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches and military strength, but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment.

42 Eisenhower's Farewell Address A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction.

43 Eisenhower's Farewell Address American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions.

44 Eisenhower's Farewell Address In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military- industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.

45 Eisenhower's Farewell Address As we peer into society's future, we – you and I, and our government – must avoid the impulse to live only for today, plundering for, for our own ease and convenience, the precious resources of tomorrow. We cannot mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren without asking the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage. We want democracy to survive for all generations to come, not to become the insolvent phantom of tomorrow.

46 We pray that peoples of all faiths, all races, all nations, may have their great human needs satisfied; that those now denied opportunity shall come to enjoy it to the full; that all who yearn for freedom may experience its spiritual blessings; that those who have freedom will understand, also, its heavy responsibilities …

47 all peoples will come to live together in a peace guaranteed by the binding force of mutual respect and love. Now, on Friday noon, I am to become a private citizen. I am proud to do so. I look forward to it. Thank you, and good night.

48 Death DBQ You will have one hour to complete this DBQ.


Download ppt "President Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1960 What were the Cold War fears faced by the American People, and how successfully did the Eisenhower Presidency."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google