Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR And start of Communism. Soviet Union Civil War 1918-1921 Bolsheviks controlled the capital and a few cities. Bolsheviks changed their name."— Presentation transcript:
THE COLD WAR And start of Communism
Soviet Union Civil War Bolsheviks controlled the capital and a few cities. Bolsheviks changed their name to Communist Party and won support with their social reforms and opportunities. In the end they defeated their rivals and established the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics. Stalin in Eastern Europe after WWII - USSR remained lone island of communism. Faced with American effort to extend influence into E. Europe with the Marshall Plan, Stalin imposed communist party run governments in Eastern Europe.
Soviet Union Feminism Enacts reforms for women- gave citizenship, equal rights, better access to divorce and abortion. Zhenotdel Soviet Women’s Department – organized and educated women. Stalin closed the program in Saw little change in family structure, had to work hard at work and at home.
Soviet Union Stalin forced the peasantry into collective farms between 1928 and 1933, resulting in massive protests and slaughtering of animals rather than giving them over the gov. Stalin declared war on the wealthier peasants killing some and deporting others. This process resulted in famine that killed 5 million Stalin’s Great Purge – launched a bloody attack on his perceived enemies within the party, they were arrested, put on trial, or shot or exiled to Siberia. After World War II – Europe divided by Iron Curtain – Germany and Berlin divided between U.S. allies and Communist Soviet Union.
Communist China First communist party appeared in 1921 ( small amount of supporters) Faced the well equipped Chinese Nationalist Party Chang launched a campaign to killed Chinese Communist Party members and drove the rest out of the cities. The Communist party was forced to rely on peasants in small villages. Engaged in public works, built a peasant based guerilla fighting force. Mao Zedong rose as leader of the struggling party. Appealed to women because they thought it would liberate them.
Japanese invasion of China – CCP grew in size and importance. Partly because the CCP’s gorilla tactics allowed them to operate behind Japanese lines. People were forced from the cities in fear of Japanese and were exposed to CCP’s policies When the war with Japan ended, 4 years of struggle between the communists and nationalists Mao declares victory in Tiananmen Square in October.
Role of Women – China Enacted a number of reforms like Marriages Law however the Communist Party was not very successful in getting women to work outside the home.
Chinese Famine Chinese collectivization was a massive undertaking that disrupted markets. Combined with administrative choas and bad weather, the process caused an even larger famine with 20 million deaths between 1959 and 1969.
Great Leap forward attemps to industrialize China. In reaction to social changes that occurred when USSR attempted 5 year plan, Mao pushed for small decentralized projects. Used China’s massive population to build dams, roads, and factories.But because of poor planning and the high cost of foreign machinery and equipment, the plan was an economic disaster.
Cultural Revolution 1966 Moa closed China’s universities and schools and invited 11 million students to gather in Beijing as Red Guards. The Red Guards traveled throughout China attacking writers, scientists, doctors, factory managers, and party officials for looking down on the common people and for abandoning Communist ideals.
Cold War beginnings: POSTWAR PLANS YALTA CONFERENCE – Allied Leaders meet (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin) Germany to be divided into zones of occupation Reparations to Soviet Union paid by Germany Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe UNITED NATIONS FORMED, JUNE 1945 – International organization intended to protect members against aggression – Based in New York – General Body and a Security Council made up of 11 nations (5 permanent USA, USSR, CHINA, GB, FRANCE)
POTSDAM CONFERENCE, JULY 1945 War in Europe over but still going on in the Pacific Stalin breaks his word from Yalta sets up communist gov’ts in regimes in Eastern Europ Truman and Churchill are upset with Stalin, but he makes it clear that he had no intentions of keeping his word Beginnings of tensions between USA & Soviets
OLD FRIEND…NEW ENEMIES USA World’s richest & most powerful after the war No war damage 400k deaths POSTWAR GOALS – Encourage democracy – Access raw materials & markets – Rebuild European gov’ts/ promote stability – Reunite Germany USSR Soviet cities demolished 24M deaths POSTWAR GOALS – Encourage communism – Rebuild war-ravaged economy using Eastern European industry/raw materials – Control Eastern Europe to protect borders/ balance US influence in Western Europe – Keep Germany divided to prevent it from starting war again
CHANGE IN POWER IN THE UNITED STATES Roosevelt believes the power of his relationship would keep Stalin in check Unfortunately, he dies in April of 1945 Harry Truman succeeds him as President of the USA
THE IRON CURTAIN: represents the division between the mostly democratic Western Europe & mostly communist Eastern Europe EASTERN GERMANY controlled by the USSR including half of the capital city of Berlin – NEW NAME: GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC WESTERN GERMANY controlled by Western allies – NEW NAME: FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
USA POLICY Truman thinks it’s time to stop “appeasing” the Soviets…new policy CONTAINMENT – Directed at blocking Soviet influence and expansion of communism
RIVAL ALLIANCES NATO Nations promised to meet an attack on a NATO member with armed force WARSAW PACT Soviet alliance system as part of their own containment policy SOME COUNTRIES STAYED OUT OF THE ALLIANCES LIKE INDIA & CHINA
NUCLEAR THREAT BY 1949, THE SOVIETS TEST THEIR ATOMIC WEAPON TRUMAN AUTHORIZES WORK ON A THERMONUCLEAR WEAPON (H-BOMB) 1953: Stalin dies and is succeeded by Nikita Kruschev CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS: USA tries to overthrow Castro; Kruschev moves nuclear weapons to Cuba; USA moves weapons to Turkey….
COMPETITION MOVES TO ALL AREAS OF LIFE SPACE RACE SCIENCE & EDUCATION BALLET SPORTS (Hockey)
Proxy Wars or Hot Wars – Wars fought in other countries in which the U.S. and Soviet Union were fighting on opposing sides. 1. KOREAN WAR ( ) US & USSR had withdrawn most troops from Korea by 1949 Soviets think the USA will not defend S. Korea so they supply N. Korea Standoff at the 38 th Parallel UN Forces led by US Gen. MacArthur fight—cease fire established Korea remained divided after the war N.K.: Communist/Military Dictatorship S.K. Democratic
2. Vietnam – Vietnam communist fought independence from the French, Ho Chi Minh crated a communist state in the North. The North (Viet Cong) launched guerilla warfare against the South American troops withdrew from the war and Vietnam was united under communist rule. Cambodia – 1975 The withdrawl of American forces also leads the collapse of the neighboring government of Cambodia. Communists know as the Khmer Rouge seize control and carry out genocide against city dwellers and educated. 4 million Cambodians are killed between 1975 and 1978
Cuba 1959 Fidel Castro comes into power and nationalized businesses. U.S. reacts to the nationalization of American owned businesses in Cuba by breaking off trade. Cuba turns to USSR for help. Soviet Leader Nikita Krushchev sent nuclear missiles to Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis- President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba and threatened to invade if missiles were not withdrawn.
Afghanistan 1978 After a communist regime came to power, it faced insurgency over it’s land reforms and women’s right policies ( remember it was a Muslim country ) USSR sent troops so communism would remain in power, US sent troops to aid the Muslim rebels. USSR had to pull out in the face of ongoing guerilla actions.