2Soviet UnionCivil War Bolsheviks controlled the capital and a few cities. Bolsheviks changed their name to Communist Party and won support with their social reforms and opportunities.In the end they defeated their rivals and established the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics.Stalin in Eastern Europe after WWII - USSR remained lone island of communism.Faced with American effort to extend influence into E. Europe with the Marshall Plan, Stalin imposed communist party run governments in Eastern Europe.
4Soviet Union FeminismEnacts reforms for women- gave citizenship, equal rights, better access to divorce and abortion.Zhenotdel Soviet Women’s Department – organized and educated women. Stalin closed the program in 1930.Saw little change in family structure, had to work hard at work and at home.
5Soviet UnionStalin forced the peasantry into collective farms between 1928 and 1933, resulting in massive protests and slaughtering of animals rather than giving them over the gov.Stalin declared war on the wealthier peasants killing some and deporting others.This process resulted in famine that killed 5 million.Stalin’s Great Purge – launched a bloody attack on his perceived enemies within the party, they were arrested, put on trial, or shot or exiled to Siberia.After World War II – Europe divided by Iron Curtain – Germany and Berlin divided between U.S. allies and Communist Soviet Union.
7Communist China First communist party appeared in 1921 ( small amount of supporters)Faced the well equipped Chinese Nationalist Party Chang launched a campaign to killed Chinese Communist Party members and drove the rest out of the cities.The Communist party was forced to rely on peasants in small villages. Engaged in public works, built a peasant based guerilla fighting force.Mao Zedong rose as leader of the struggling party.Appealed to women because they thought it would liberate them.
8Japanese invasion of China – CCP grew in size and importance. Partly because the CCP’s gorilla tactics allowed them to operate behind Japanese lines. People were forced from the cities in fear of Japanese and were exposed to CCP’s policies.1949- When the war with Japan ended, 4 years of struggle between the communists and nationalists.1949 Mao declares victory in Tiananmen Square in October.
9Role of Women – ChinaEnacted a number of reforms like Marriages Law however the Communist Party was not very successful in getting women to work outside the home.
10Chinese FamineChinese collectivization was a massive undertaking that disrupted markets.Combined with administrative choas and bad weather, the process caused an even larger famine with 20 million deaths between 1959 and 1969.
11Great Leap forward 1958-1960- attemps to industrialize China. In reaction to social changes that occurred when USSR attempted 5 year plan, Mao pushed for small decentralized projects .Used China’s massive population to build dams, roads, and factories.But because of poor planning and the high cost of foreign machinery and equipment, the plan was an economic disaster.
13Cultural Revolution1966 Moa closed China’s universities and schools and invited 11 million students to gather in Beijing as Red Guards.The Red Guards traveled throughout China attacking writers, scientists, doctors, factory managers, and party officials for looking down on the common people and for abandoning Communist ideals.
15Cold War beginnings: POSTWAR PLANS YALTA CONFERENCEAllied Leaders meet (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin)Germany to be divided into zones of occupationReparations to Soviet Union paid by GermanyStalin promises free elections in Eastern EuropeUNITED NATIONS FORMED, JUNE 1945International organization intended to protect members against aggressionBased in New YorkGeneral Body and a Security Council made up of 11 nations (5 permanent USA, USSR, CHINA, GB, FRANCE)
16POTSDAM CONFERENCE, JULY 1945 War in Europe over but still going on in the PacificStalin breaks his word from Yalta sets up communist gov’ts in regimes in Eastern EuropTruman and Churchill are upset with Stalin, but he makes it clear that he had no intentions of keeping his wordBeginnings of tensions between USA & Soviets
17OLD FRIEND…NEW ENEMIES USAUSSRWorld’s richest & most powerful after the warNo war damage400k deathsPOSTWAR GOALSEncourage democracyAccess raw materials & marketsRebuild European gov’ts/ promote stabilityReunite GermanySoviet cities demolished24M deathsPOSTWAR GOALSEncourage communismRebuild war-ravaged economy using Eastern European industry/raw materialsControl Eastern Europe to protect borders/ balance US influence in Western EuropeKeep Germany divided to prevent it from starting war again
18CHANGE IN POWER IN THE UNITED STATES Roosevelt believes the power of his relationship would keep Stalin in checkUnfortunately, he dies in April of 1945Harry Truman succeeds him as President of the USA
19WESTERN GERMANY controlled by Western allies THE IRON CURTAIN: represents the division between the mostly democratic Western Europe & mostly communist Eastern EuropeEASTERN GERMANY controlled by the USSR including half of the capital city of BerlinNEW NAME: GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICWESTERN GERMANY controlled by Western alliesNEW NAME: FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
20USA POLICYTruman thinks it’s time to stop “appeasing” the Soviets…new policyCONTAINMENTDirected at blocking Soviet influence and expansion of communismCOMMUNISM
23SOME COUNTRIES STAYED OUT OF THE ALLIANCES LIKE INDIA & CHINA RIVAL ALLIANCESNATOWARSAW PACTNations promised to meet an attack on a NATO member with armed forceSoviet alliance system as part of their own containment policySOME COUNTRIES STAYED OUT OF THE ALLIANCES LIKE INDIA & CHINA
25NUCLEAR THREAT BY 1949, THE SOVIETS TEST THEIR ATOMIC WEAPON TRUMAN AUTHORIZES WORK ON A THERMONUCLEAR WEAPON (H-BOMB)1953: Stalin dies and is succeeded by Nikita KruschevCUBAN MISSILE CRISIS: USA tries to overthrow Castro; Kruschev moves nuclear weapons to Cuba; USA moves weapons to Turkey….
26COMPETITION MOVES TO ALL AREAS OF LIFE SPACE RACESCIENCE & EDUCATIONBALLETSPORTS (Hockey)
27US & USSR had withdrawn most troops from Korea by 1949 Proxy Wars or Hot Wars – Wars fought in other countries in which the U.S. and Soviet Union were fighting on opposing sides.1. KOREAN WAR ( )US & USSR had withdrawn most troops from Korea by 1949Soviets think the USA will not defend S. Korea so they supply N. KoreaStandoff at the 38th ParallelUN Forces led by US Gen. MacArthur fight—cease fire establishedKorea remained divided after the warN.K.: Communist/Military DictatorshipS.K. Democratic
29The North (Viet Cong) launched guerilla warfare against the South. 2. Vietnam –Vietnam communist fought independence from the French, Ho Chi Minh crated a communist state in the North.The North (Viet Cong) launched guerilla warfare against the South.1973 American troops withdrew from the war and Vietnam was united under communist rule.Cambodia – 1975The withdrawl of American forces also leads the collapse of the neighboring government of Cambodia. Communists know as the Khmer Rouge seize control and carry out genocide against city dwellers and educated.4 million Cambodians are killed between 1975 and 1978
31Fidel Castro comes into power and nationalized businesses. Cuba 1959Fidel Castro comes into power and nationalized businesses.U.S. reacts to the nationalization of American owned businesses in Cuba by breaking off trade.Cuba turns to USSR for help. Soviet Leader Nikita Krushchev sent nuclear missiles to Cuba.Cuban Missile Crisis- President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba and threatened to invade if missiles were not withdrawn.
33USSR had to pull out in the face of ongoing guerilla actions. Afghanistan 1978After a communist regime came to power, it faced insurgency over it’s land reforms and women’s right policies ( remember it was a Muslim country )USSR sent troops so communism would remain in power, US sent troops to aid the Muslim rebels.USSR had to pull out in the face of ongoing guerilla actions.