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World Politics in a New Era Chapter 4

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1 World Politics in a New Era Chapter 4
World Politics and Economics: The Cold War

2 Causes of the Cold War It was Moscow’s fault
Soviet aggression and expansionism Domestic-level argument No, it was Washington’s fault Expand overseas markets Use of atomic bomb Ideological conflict Capitalism versus communism = inevitable conflict

3 Causes of the Cold War Leadership Bipolarity
Truman and Stalin Individual-level argument Bipolarity Realpolitik and the security dilemma Systemic-level argument It was all a misunderstanding No hostile intentions but rather misinterpretation

4 Heating Up the Cold War Initial confrontation: Iran
Soviets refused to withdraw but eventually backed down United States determined that standing firm was best way to deal with USSR The “Iron Curtain” descended Churchill warned that an "Iron Curtain" was dividing Europe Britain conceded leading role in world affairs to United States

5 Early U.S. Policies Truman Doctrine (1947) Marshall Plan (1947)
Persuade Congress to authorize aid to Greece and Turkey Aid to states attempting to resist communist insurgencies The “declaration of the Cold War”? Marshall Plan (1947) Massive program of economic aid to the war-demolished nations of Europe Three lasting effects Revitalized western European economies Thwarted communist influence in western Europe Facilitated European economic and political integration

6 Containment U.S. strategic doctrine throughout Cold War
Prevent communist/Soviet expansion George Kennan – “Long Telegram” Application of counterforce Novikov Telegram United States striving for world supremacy Both telegrams demonstrated lack of trust

7 Berlin Blockade ( ) Closed all land access routes to the Western-occupied sectors The United States responded by organizing a massive airlift of basic necessities Reinforced the USSR's aggressive reputation in the West The USSR and the Western Allies took independent steps to set up governments in their occupied zones of Germany

8 NATO and the Warsaw Pact
Creation of NATO in April 1949 Role of Berlin Blockade Nations of western Europe plus the United States and Canada The first alliance the United States had entered into in peacetime Creation of Warsaw Pact in 1955 Soviet client states in eastern Europe

9 Transformation of the World Economy
The United States emerged as hegemon Dominated the world in terms of production A massive increase in U.S. GNP Increase in international trade and investment Improvement in living standards The Bretton Woods system (1945) Designed to facilitate economic cooperation Created IMF and the World Bank In 1947, GATT sought to open world markets and increase trade

10 Chinese Revolution Struggle between communists and Nationalists
Declining strength and popularity of the Nationalist Kuomintang, led by Chiang Kai-shek In 1949, Chinese communists led by Mao Zedong won the civil war Established the People's Republic of China The Nationalists retreated to Taiwan

11 NCS-68 Communist victory in China and the USSR's test of an atomic bomb The National Security Council prepared a controversial plan NSC-68 called for the increase of U.S. armed forces Rejected initially due to fear that the high military spending would ruin the U.S. economy

12 The Korean War Korea divided after World War II
Rigged election in the North brought Kim Il-Sung to power Both the USSR and the United States withdrew their occupation forces by 1950 In June 1950, North Korean forces attacked the South, attempting to unify the country by force The Security Council authorized intervention into the war by a U.S.-led coalition

13 The Korean War The U.S.-led UN intervention saved South Korea
The Chinese intervened on the Northern side Stalemated along the 38th parallel Turning point in the Cold War Adoption of NSC-68 and a large buildup of forces U.S. involvement in Asia was increased U.S.-Soviet and U.S.-Chinese conflicts heightened The global U.S.-Soviet conflict worsened Set a precedent for limited war

14 The Third World The USSR established ties with newly independent nations in Asia and Africa The United States sought to limit Soviet influence in these developing countries U.S.-engineered coup in Iran CIA-backed coup in Guatemala Suez Crisis Nonaligned movement Assert independence Play superpowers off one another

15 Berlin In 1958, the Soviets demanded the Western Allies' withdrawal from Berlin In 1961, the Berlin Wall was erected East German authorities sealed off West Berlin with barbed wire and concrete barricades An effort to stop the flow of refugees Western sectors of Berlin were surrounded by the Berlin Wall, but West Berlin remained in Allied hands

16 Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet medium-range nuclear missiles detected by U.S. intelligence The resulting crisis was the most acute of the Cold War The United States instituted a blockade The USSR agreed to withdraw the missiles in exchange for U.S. concessions

17 Cuban Missile Crisis Results Relaxation of Cold War tensions
Agreement on a limited nuclear test ban treaty Establishment of the Moscow-Washington "hotline" The USSR began building up its nuclear forces at tremendous cost Americans became overconfident and now underestimated the difficulties of containing communism in the Third World

18 The Vietnam War 16,000 U.S. military advisors in South Vietnam
In 1965, U.S. combat forces in Vietnam to forestall a communist victory By 1968 the United States had more than 500,000 soldiers fighting in Vietnam U.S. troops, military aid, and bombing campaigns failed to defeat the Vietcong The United States could not strengthen the corrupt South Vietnamese regime Vietnam fell to the communists in 1975

19 The Apparent Decline of U.S. Economic Hegemony
Growth of economies of Europe and Japan The United States developed a current-account deficit The “Nixon Shock” occurred in 1971 In 1973, the fixed exchange rate system was ended International economic relations took on a more multilateral cast

20 Detente In February 1972, U.S. President Nixon visited China
Visit signaled new flexibility in U.S. policy Nixon and Kissinger also sought to improve U.S.-Soviet relations Acknowledged the USSR's superpower status and attainment of strategic parity with the United States Moscow Summit SALT I Economic and trade agreements

21 Tensions in Detente The United States and USSR had different goals and expectations for detente The United States hoped to avoid confrontations and challenges to each other’s vital interests The USSR expected the Cold War competition to continue The Arab-Israeli War of 1973 An alert of U.S. nuclear forces Arab oil embargo against the United States

22 The End of Detente Invasion of Afghanistan
Carter emphasized interdependence, economic factors, and human rights Carter and Brezhnev signed SALT II in 1979 Soviet belief that the United States would not oppose Soviet expansion in the Third World Invasion of Afghanistan Attempt to install a more strongly pro-Soviet regime Widely denounced in the West and Third World Economic sanctions and withdrawal of the U.S. team from the Moscow Olympics in 1980

23 Reagan and the Reagan Doctrine
More assertive form of containment Reagan labeled the USSR the “evil empire” Reagan Doctrine: increased U.S. support for anticommunist insurgencies in the Third World Examples: Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua Controversial and expensive improvements in U.S. military forces

24 The Gorbachev Era Policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (economic restructuring) USSR refused to prop up communist regimes Mass uprisings resulting in the collapse of communist regimes Abortive coup by hard-line communists in the USSR failed in 1991 Discrediting of Soviet regime Disintegration of Soviet Union by end of 1991

25 Why Did the Cold War End? The Gorbachev factor
Gorbachev's leadership and policies “Great-man” theory Individual-level explanation The failure of communism Internal changes in Soviet policy and society Triumph of capitalism over communism Domestic-level explanation

26 Why Did the Cold War End? End of the evil empire Decline of bipolarity
Soviet Union became too weak to challenge the United States and ultimately collapsed Variant: economic and military competition with the West Essentially a systemic-level explanation Decline of bipolarity Real "winners" of the Cold War Unipolarity or multipolarity? Systemic-level explanation

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