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The Cold War 1945-1990. The Cold War Defined A continuing state of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union A continuing state of tensions.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1990. The Cold War Defined A continuing state of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union A continuing state of tensions."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 The Cold War Defined A continuing state of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union A continuing state of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union

3 Development of the Cold War U.S. saw Soviet Union as threat to their way of life U.S. saw Soviet Union as threat to their way of life USSR thought they had won WWII USSR thought they had won WWII –Lost most lives –Wanted to gain land as prize –Saw U.S. as threat

4 Development of the Cold War Iron Curtain-figure of speech by Churchill describing line separating free and communist Europe Iron Curtain-figure of speech by Churchill describing line separating free and communist Europe “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. “ “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. “

5 Cold War Doctrines Truman Doctrine-promised aid to countries resisting communism Truman Doctrine-promised aid to countries resisting communism –Communist pressured Greece and Turkey –Containment- philosophy of limiting spread of communism Marshall Plan- aid to strengthen democratic governments Marshall Plan- aid to strengthen democratic governments

6 Division of Germany Divided into four zones Divided into four zones –West Germany free –East Germany communist controlled Berlin Airlift Berlin Airlift –Communists forced blockade of West Berlin –U.S., Britain flew in food almost a year.

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8 Cold War Alliances NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization –Free nations pledged support to each other if attacked by communism SEATO-Southeast Asia Treaty Organization SEATO-Southeast Asia Treaty Organization –Stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, following Korean War Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact –Included Soviet Union and it’s seven satellite nations

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10 Cold War Heats Up 1940’s-50’s Hungarian and Czechoslovakian anti-communist revolts forcefully repressed by USSR 1940’s-50’s Hungarian and Czechoslovakian anti-communist revolts forcefully repressed by USSR Beginning of Atomic Age Beginning of Atomic Age –1949 Soviet Detonation of Nuclear Bomb –U.S. begins work on hydrogen bomb –Next 50 years arms race between two

11 Cold War Heats Up Space Race Space Race –Competition for space –1957 Soviet’s launch Sputnik –U.S. starts NASA –Use of Spy satellite equipment –1958- U.S. sent Explorer –1969- Man lands on Moon

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16 Fall of the Berlin Wall, 1990 Triggered by flood of refugees flowing east to west through Hungary Triggered by flood of refugees flowing east to west through Hungary Wall came down Nov. 1990; Germany began reunification process Wall came down Nov. 1990; Germany began reunification process

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25 Collapse of the Soviet Union Stalin’s successors Stalin’s successors –Nikita Kruschev – hard line commie –Leonid Brezhnev Practiced a policy of détente ( lessening of tensions) with the U.S. Practiced a policy of détente ( lessening of tensions) with the U.S. Characterized by Characterized by –Arms control talks –Cultural exchanges –Trade agreements

26 The Fall of the Soviet Union Causes 1.Leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev 2.Glasnost- openness to democracy 3.Perestroika- reshaping of economy 4.Economic movements 5.Freedom Movements Fall of Soviet Union Effects 1.Formation of Commonwealth of Independent States 2.Loss of role as superpower 3.End of Cold War 4.Economic Hardship 5.Minority Revolts and ethnic conflicts

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28 Break-up of Soviet Union, Poland breaks away from Soviet Union Poland breaks away from Soviet Union –Solidarity- movement that called for economic and political change led by Lech Walesa Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania left USSR 1991 Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania left USSR 1991 USSR dissolved Dec USSR dissolved Dec Commonwealth of Independent States, led by Russia under Boris Yeltsin Commonwealth of Independent States, led by Russia under Boris Yeltsin Economic, religious, and crime problems Economic, religious, and crime problems

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31 Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War Yugoslavia created after WWI Yugoslavia created after WWI 6 Major National Groups 6 Major National Groups –Croats- Roman Catholic –Slovenes- Roman Catholic –Serbs- Eastern Orthodox –Montenegrins- Eastern Orthodox –Macedonians – Eastern Orthodox –Bosnians - Muslims

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33 Civil War At independence Serbs in Bosnia used force to remove all non-Serbs At independence Serbs in Bosnia used force to remove all non-Serbs Ethnic Cleansing-removal or killing of ethnic group Ethnic Cleansing-removal or killing of ethnic group Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic led campaign to remove non-Serbs Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic led campaign to remove non-Serbs NATO used Military Campaign against Milosevic NATO used Military Campaign against Milosevic

34 Civil War cont’d Milosevic arrested tried for war crimes Milosevic arrested tried for war crimes Tensions still exist between ethnic groups Tensions still exist between ethnic groups –2004-Ukrainian (pro-western) Presidential Candidate Victor Yushchenko poisoned

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