Formation of the People’s Republic of China & Institutional Set up of China
Struggles between the Communists and the Nationalists/ How did the communists rise To power? Man factor VS Time factor
Man factor: 1.Laying the foundation by forming The Chinese Communist Party (CCP/CPC) Civil War 1916-28 Paris Peace Conference-humiliation The influence of the USSR/ Communism Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao, Mao Zedong Formed the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai.
Background for the Rise of Chinese Communist Party 1.Humiliation at the Paris Peace Conference--Shandong was Given to Japan without her approval 2. Attracted by Marxism during the May-Fourth Movement— Determined to end their country’s reliance on the West. 3. Success of the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution 4. Marxist movement started by Li da-Chao, Chen du-xiu and Mao ze-dong. 5. Help from the USSR-agreed to give up all special rights In China
Strengthening of Guomindang (GMD) / Nationalist Party 1.Sun re-organized GMD (1916) in Guangzhou and gained The support of Chen Jiongming (warlord) 2. He expanded Sanmin Zhuyi and declared them the political Doctrine of the GMD—stressed anti-imperialism and expanded The principle of democracy. 3. He turned to Soviet (efficient organization model for the GMD). ---1922, He allowed the CCP leaders to join the GMD on individuals Rather than a group. In 1923, he made an agreement with Joffe, Soviet agent that the Soviet would help Sun to reorganize the GMD.
4.In 1924, Sun reorganized GMD and modelled on Soviet Communist party. He set up the Huangpu Military Academy.
CCP’s goals: -overthrow Bourgeois class -eliminate class differences -establish the dictatorship of the proletariat -abolish the privatization system CCP’s direction to achieve the goals: -gather people from the labour class and lead The labour movement
2. Joining into the First United Front 1924-7 (with Guomindang) to control it Joined the GMD as individuals rather than As a group. They received advisors and loans from USSR to drive out the warlords and unify China by taking Northern Expedition. However, GMD, CCP and the USSR had Different aims and ideologies—no lasting And true cooperation p.128/129
The Northern Expedition 1926-8 -Jiang took command of the National Revolutionary Army and Started the Northern Expedition against the warlords in July. -They captured Shanghai and Nanjing. -By 1927, the Nationalist government was moved from Guangzhou To Wuhan. -Less people (left wing GMD) trusted Jiang’s government. They Planned to overthrow him. -Jiang executed more than 300 Communists in Shanghai, Nanjing, Guangzhou and other cities.
There were three governments in China by that time: 1.*Jiang established a new government in Nanjing 2.The Beijing government at Beijing under warlords 3.The Nationalist government at Wuhan (controlled by CCP and left wing GMD) under Wang
1927, left wing GMD leaders broke with CCP. The First United Front ended and the right wings of GMD reunited with Jiang’s Government. 1928, With the help of Yan and Fang (warlords), Jiang became the most powerful leader of new government. Jiang occupied Beijng and almost terminated all warlords.
1930s -the Growth of CCP -the Long March -the Second United Front
3. Reorganizing the CCP 1927-34 Why reorganizing? CCP worked among the people of the cities Which fell under GMD during the Northern Expedition (organize unions & helped Peasants overthrow their landlords)
Worried Jiang & the nationalists supporters - sudden attack on Shanghai communists in 1927 killed 300 Communists CCP & GMD cooperation collapsed 1927, CCP staged uprisings in Nanchang, Changsha and Guangzhou (Support from the workers were limited)
How to reorganize the CCP? a. Mao and Zhu de fled and formed the Chinese Red Army at Jinggangshan. Zhu Became the commander in chief. b. Mao shifted the focus to the peasants CCP seized the land from the landlords and Give them to peasants. All debts were wiped Out.
c. Mao used the guerilla tactics to avoid direct Fighting with the GMD d. Mao stressed the importance of army discipline -quite successful.
1931, CCP set up the Chinese Soviet Republic At Ruijin in Jiangxi with Mao as the Chairman. (map p.132)
4. Launching the Long March 1934-5 GMD continued the anti-Communist Campaigns and tight blockade to cut the supplies CCP retreated and 100000 went on the Long March
Any difficulties? Passed through 11 provinces 25000 miles Chased and attacked by the GMD Harsh weather 6000 miles 100000—20000 survived 80000 died.
Finally took the base at Yan’an in Shaanxi 1936 and spread their ideas to the interior of China.
DBQ p. 123 1.Why did the Long March take place? 2.How did Mao judge the Long March? 3.How useful was the source in understanding The benefits that brought to CCP?
5. Taking the Second United Front 1937 Japan seized the northern province of Manchuria Since 1931 (Manchurian Incident) Jiang: “the Japanese are a disease of the skin, It can be cured. The Communists are a disease Of the soul; it affects the whole body.”
CCP called for united front against the Japanese. Xian Incident 1936 Zhang Xueliang, Yang Hucheng kidnapped Jiang Zhou Enlai mediated the crisis Jiang agreed to the Second United Front. The Second Sino Japanese War started. Not much cooperation until 1945.
Jiang received aids from the US & China was Divided into 3 parts. P.133 a.Jiang fled to Chongqing-Nationalists b.Japanese-controlled territory c.Communist-Yenan
6. The growth of CCP 1937-45 Guerilla war against the Japanese Worked among the peasants and controlled The countryside. (reduced the land rent, Built schools, provided medical care, helped The field works. Seen as “defenders and friends of people” Controlled 300000 square miles and 95 millions
8. Winning the Chinese Civil War 1945-9 US sent Marshall to mediate the coalition Government but collapsed in 1946. 1947, People Liberation Army continued to Control northern China and won several Decisive battles. Captured Nanjing and proclaimed “People’s Republic of China” Jiang retreated to Taiwan and set up the Nationalist government there.
Time factor 1. In early 1920s—favoured the setup of CCP Civil War 1916-28 Paris Peace Conference The influence of the USSR/ Communism 2. The instability caused by warlords in 1924-7 ---favoured the formation of First United Front
3.Made use of the Northern Expedition And GMD’s attacks to reorganize CCP 4. Taking the Long March to spread The communist ideas in interior China.
5. Japanese attacks in 1930s—favoured the Stoppage of GMD attack and the formation of Second United Front. -worked among the peasants and controlled Country-side “friends & defenders” 6. The US reduced the aids to GMD during the The Civil War 1945-9.
Why were the Communists able to defeat the Nationalists? Leadership? Strategies? Peasant support? Foreign aid? (text p.135-6)