Presentation on theme: "The Cold War Era Sputnik and Beyond. The Cold War Threat of the spread of Communism led to policy of containment US declared to take what ever economic."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War Threat of the spread of Communism led to policy of containment US declared to take what ever economic and military means necessary to stop the spread of communism
Political Economy 1929-Stock Market Crash Prosperity following the end of W.W.II in 1945 led to more consumerism Communist scare let to McCarthy hearings
Threat of Communism US declared to take what ever economic and military means necessary to stop the spread of communism Known as “policy of containment”
Doctrine of First Use US stockpiled nuclear weapons in order to initiate nuclear bombing whenever enemy forces threatened America
Red Scare A near hysteria was created in the late 40's and 50's with hearings led by Joseph McCarthy accusing people of belonging to the Communist PartyJoseph McCarthy
DuBois Accused of Communism Detail of photo taken in 1951 of Philadelphia communists protesting the detention of W.E.B. DuBois. The picket sign reads: "FRAME-UP / YOU MAY BE NEXT"
Spies and Espionage Julius and Ethel Rosenberg U.S. communists who were executed in 1953 for passing on nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union.
More Spies F rancis Gary Powers U.S. Air Force U-2 pilot who was shot down while on a surveillance mission over the Soviet Union. Sentenced to 10 years in captivity but served only two before he was released to the United States in a spy exchange for Soviet spy Rudolph Abel.
Ideology McCarthyism Meritocracy Social Mobility Anticommunism Education for national interest Corporate liberalism Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), anti-Communist crusader
Sputnik First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Schooling Had US Schools Failed? This launch of Sputnik alarmed the American public and made them think that their schools had failed to teach science and math.
Shift in Curriculum Millions of dollars were allocated for upgrading the teaching of science and math Schools introduced tracking, differentiated curriculum, and IQ testing
James Conant and the SAT James Conant, president of Harvard, saw the need to develop a valid measure of academic aptitude to ensure objectivity in determining scholarship eligibility Decided on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Click to read interview
Comprehensive High Schools Conant believed that scholarships and accelerated classes would encourage the intellectually gifted He believed that vocational classes should meet the needs of the “less academically able.” Advocated larger high schools to serve both types of students.
Schooling for Social Cohesion Conant believed that putting the academically gifted students in schools with the vocational students would foster a greater sense of democracy.
Urban Education Conant believed that vocational education in urban schools fostered stability and desirable social behaviors of the students. Consequence was segregation for vocational classes
Conclusion The focus of educational concern shifted from realizing the all around growth of students to promoting political, economic, and social stability. A small group of “talented” students were provided true intellectual challenges.