2Causes of the Cold WarConflict developed immediately following World War II when the Soviet Union refused to allow free elections in Eastern Europe and created Communist satellites there.Winston Churchill called the Soviet threat an “iron curtain” across Europe.
3Soviet Union took control of Eastern European nations Communism gained in Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia (Greece and Turkey)Western powers feared Soviet expansionCold War: period after WWII of a state of tension between nations without actual fighting
4Effects of the Cold War Truman Doctrine - stated that the United States would oppose the spread of communism. The U.S. policy of limiting Communist expansion was called containment.In 1947, President Truman requested military aid to stop Communist threats1947-asked Congress for $400 million to aid Greece and Turkey; pledged to help nations threatened by communist expansion
5Marshall PlanIn 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the Marshall Plan to provide economic aid to postwar Europe.Growing Communist parties in France and Italy was one reason the United States stepped in to help with $12 billion in aid.
6Marshall PlanAmerican plan to help European nations rebuild their economies after WWII; if they had been left in poverty, they may have succumbed to dictators or worse, communism.
7Berlin Airlift ends a Soviet blockade Germany was divided up into 4 sections after WWII: France, Britain, Soviet Union and U.S. Berlin divided also but within Soviet zoneIn 1948, the Soviet Union set up a blockade around West Berlin. The United States played a major role in the Berlin airlift by flying in food and other supplies to the people of West Berlin.)
8In 1949, the United States joined with Great Britain and France to combine the areas of Germany that they controlled into West Germany. In turn the Soviets created East Germany.
9U.S. InvolvementThe United States demonstrated a turn away from isolationism by supporting two organizations.The United States took a leading role in creating the United Nations. Like all members, it had a vote in the General Assembly.
10United NationsInternational organization formed in 1945 to help solve conflicts between nations (hunger, disease, education, war)The United States became one of five countries that are permanent members of the more powerful Security Council.
11NATOThe United States also helped establish a military alliance with other Western nations known as NATO.North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)Alliance formed in 1949 by the United States & Western European nations to fight Soviet aggressionIts purpose was to guard against Soviet attack.
12Warsaw PactMilitary alliance formed by the Soviet Union in called the Warsaw Pact, also called Warsaw Alliance
13Other World EventsNew nations became independent; the U.S. & the Soviet Union competed for their support.Philippines granted independence in 1946India granted independence in 1947-India remained neutral, Pakistan supported the U.S.Many nations of S.E. Asia won independenceOver 20 African nations gained independence from
14ChinaAfter WWII – In 1949, Communists under Mao Zedong came to power in China. Along with the Soviet Union, communists controlled almost ¼ of the world lands.The United States refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China, insisting that the government of Taiwan was the legal Chinese government.
15Arms Race Arms race develops between U.S. & the Soviet Union Each side built up its supply of missiles & atomic weaponsSputnik spawned fear that the Soviet Union was better equipped than the U.S. – atomic missiles could definitely reach the U.S.U.S. tripled amount of atomic weapons
16Bomb ScaresFamilies built “fallout shelters” & schools had air raid drills - “Duck and Cover”Threatened one final war that would wipe out ALL life on earth.
17Adjusting to Peacetime Chapter 25 Section 2Adjusting to Peacetime
18Two economic challenges that the United States faced after WWII were absorbing millions of soldiers into a peacetime economy and changing the economy from producing war goods to consumer goods.
19Economy of 1950’sThe G.I. Bill of Rights helped to solve the first problem by providing money for starting businesses, buying homes, and paying for college.American were eager to buy consumer goods, and demand soon exceeded supply, causing inflation. As prices rose, workers demanded higher wages, and a wave of strikes swept the nation.
20Taft-Hartley Act and Fair Deal When a Republican Congress took control, it passed the Taft-Hartley Act, which gave the government power to delay a strike.The Taft-Hartley act also forbade the use of a closed shop, or a workplace in which only union members can be hired.
21Taft-Hartley Act and Fair Deal Truman managed to win the presidential election in 1948, and the Democrats gained control of Congress. It passed Truman’s “Fair Deal” proposal that helped workers, such as a higher minimum wage.
22Dwight D. EisenhowerDwight Eisenhower was elected president in 1952 and reelected in He believed in smaller government with less control of the economy.
23Economic Changes in the 1950’s Once the peacetime economy got underway, the 1950’s were prosperous times for many Americans.Soaring employment and increased productivity helped workers produce more goods for consumers to buy.The U.S. standard of living increased.
24Economic Changes of the 1950’s More people owned their own homes and cars.However, cities experienced an economic downturn as jobs and people moved to the suburbs, leaving poorer people behind.Cities lost money to pay for schools and services, and crime increased.
25Social Changes of the 1950’s A postwar increase in population was caused by a baby boom, and by new antibiotic medicines and vaccines that helped people live longer.More cars and a new system of highways linking America fueled the growth of suburbs located around cities.
26Social Changes of the 1950’s Entertainment changed as television became the most important family activity, and new styles of music such as rock-and-roll became popular.Social critics worried that Americans were feeling more pressure to conform. They also criticized consumers’ collecting of material possessions.
27Society in the Atomic Age As fears of atomic weapons started to build towards the end of the 1950s families and schools started taking precautions to prepare for the worst.Schools throughout the US began running bomb raid drills. The students would “duck and cover” below their desks as protection from Atomic weapons
28Society in the Atomic Age The US produced a number of public safety movies to warn the public about the Atomic threat.Most famous was Burt the turtle and his school warnings about “duck and cover”
29Society in the Atomic Age Families began building Fallout Shelters in their backyards incase of Nuclear War.These shelters were designed to protect a family from a nuclear blast and the following nuclear fallout.These shelters were usually built deep under ground.
30Society in the Atomic Age Families would stock supplies in the fallout shelter in order to survive until it was safe to come above ground.
32Causes/ExpansionAfter WWII, Korea was divided into North Korea and South Korea at the 38th parallel.The Soviet Union backed a Communist government in North Korea.The United States backed South Korea.On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea.
33KoreaBecause the President Truman had decided to take a hard stance on the spread of communism the United States Decided to go to South Korea’s aid.The United States showed that it was going to enforce the mandate set by the Truman Doctrine.
34President Truman called on the United Nations to send military aid President Truman called on the United Nations to send military aid. The United States led a force of soldiers from 16 countries, although 90% were American. The commander was General Douglas MacArthur.
35Decisive ActionsWithin three days after the invasion, the North Koreans reached Seoul, the capital of South Korea.The UN forces did badly at first. Then more soldiers and supplies arrived and the UN defensive line held.MacArthur ordered an advance that sent the North Koreans back over the 38th parallel.
36MacArthur pushed his troops to the Chinese border. A counterattack by China and North Korean forces sent the UN troops back to South Korea.
37OUTCOMES War ended in a stalemate. A cease-fire in 1953 created a demilitarized zone, an area that neither side controlled.More than 2 million Koreans died in the war, mainly civilians.U.S. casualties were 30,000 killed and 100,000 wounded.
38OUTCOMESA disagreement between MacArthur and President Truman developed. Truman fired MacArthur after he called for the bombing of China.Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel.
39Fears at HomeThree events that caused Americans to become worried about Communists at home:1. Soviet possession of atomic weapons2. Fall of China to Communists3. Stalemate in Korea
40Fears at Home Two famous spy cases that seized public attention: 1. Alger Hiss, a former StateDepartment official2. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg werearrested, tried and executed forspying
42Joseph McCarthyIn February of 1950 a Republican senator by the name of Joseph McCarthy gave a speech in West Virginia in which he claimed to know the identity of 205 communist within the US government.McCarthy carried the list of names with him and would not let anyone see it.He further expanded his accusations to the US Army and famous Hollywood actors.
43McCarthy“I have here in my hand a list of two hundred and five people that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department.”
44Joseph McCarthyJoseph McCarthy gained a following of Americans by hunting Communists in the government and in the U.S. Army.The term McCarthyism came to mean accusing someone without evidence.
45Joseph McCarthyMcCarthy’s power began to fade when he started questioning officials in the United States Army.McCarthy was eventually censured by the US government but only after he had left a trail of ruined careers behind him.
46Global Concerns in the Cold War Section 4Global Concerns in the Cold War
47The Arms RaceJosep Stalin died in 1953 and was replaced by Nikita Khrushchev.Both the United States and Soviet Union exploded hydrogen bombs.In the early 1950’s, starting a race to create more powerful weapons, which they stockpiled in dangerous collections.
48The Arms RaceThe arms race got more crowded as China, France and Great Britain developed nuclear weapons.The Soviet Union launched Sputnik, expanding the arms race. Now the goal was also to control outer space.Two responses by the United States were the establishment of NASA and the National Defense Education Act.
49Emerging NationsThe Peace Corps was established for the purpose of building friendships with developing countries and encouraging their economic growth.New countries emerged following World War II. Most were former colonies in Africa and Asia that gained independence.
50Emerging NationsThe United States backed one side and the Soviets backed the other in the Congo. Each side supplied airplanes, trucks and technical advisers. As a result, the war became more violent.The U.S. colony of Philippines also gained independence. Communist rebels were defeated there.
51Emerging NationsThe United States backed French forces against a Communist fight for independence in Vietnam. Communists under Ho Chi Minh won control of northern Vietnam.
52Latin America and the Cold War Revolts in Latin America brought anti-American groups to power.When Fidel Castro took power in Cuba, he created a Communist state and began encouraging revolution in other parts of Latin America.The Bay of Pigs invasion failed and made Castro more popular.Soviet aid to Cuba included building missile bases and providing nuclear missiles.
53Cuban Missile CrisisDuring the Cuban missile crisis, the two key opposing leaders were John F. Kennedy and Khrushchev. There were fears of nuclear war if Soviet ships ran the American blockade.The crisis ended when the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles, and the United States agreed not to invade Cuba.